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"Investigating Socrates"

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“It appears there is a narrow path which brings us safely to our journeys end with reason as our guide. As long as we have a body and this evil can mingle with our soul we shall never completely attain what we desire, namely truth. For the body is forever wasting our time with its demands. When it is ill it hinders us in our pursuit of real being. It fills us with passions, desires, fears, and all kinds of imaginings and foolishness. It is always preventing us from thinking properly.”

-- Socrates

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Socrates’ Pursuit:

He Wanted to Find Truth.

Pythagoras

582 - 500 B.C.

Study of Music, Math, Numbers

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“Socrates used question-and-answer method in his philosophical pursuit. He believed that truth was inborn in all of us and by asking questions, he acted as a midwife to give birth to the ideas that men knew from a previous existences. The right question would recall what he already knows. He believed that even a uneducated slave when asked the right question could expound on Euclidian geometry.”

From

Plato’s Meno

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Reason

Revelation

Experience

slide11

Socrates realized that

“The way we see the world determines the way we live.”

slide15

The View of Karl Marx

Truth/Reality:

Man is good, defines truth, progress through societal evolution.

slide16

The View of Karl Marx

Theology

Man is innately good & accountable to himself. Evil is caused by outside institutions (family/religion) holding back his progress.

Truth/Reality (Man defines truth)

slide17

The View of Karl Marx

Sociology

The State must abolish outdated institutions (family, religion) to ensure the development of a free society.

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide18

The View of Karl Marx

Ethics

Determined by State. If ethics help the cause of State, then it’s morally good. Whatever hinders its advance in social evolution is morally evil.

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide19

The View of Karl Marx

Law

State is given sovereignty (there’s no higher power.) As man is the final word in ethics, the State is the only source for legal "truth."

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide20

The View of Karl Marx

Economics

Private property abolished: man will no longer oppress fellow man to protect his private property. Individuals will see needs fulfilled through shared ownership (communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide21

The View of Karl Marx

Politics

Globalism. Working class will establish a worldwide "dictatorship of proletariat,” stepping forward in evolution.

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide22

The View of Jesus Christ

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

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The View of Jesus Christ

Truth/Reality

Man is good and evil. Truth is anchored in the ultimate reality of a loving God.

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide24

The View of Jesus Christ

Theology

Humans are made in God’s image, but are intrinsically capable of evil. We are loved by, created by, and accountable to God.

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide25

The View of Jesus Christ

Sociology

The individual and social order are both important. God-ordained institutions (family, church, state) should teach love, respect, discipline -- virtues anchored in the nature of God. Progress teaches us how to use freedom to do what is right.

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

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The View of Jesus Christ

Ethics

Moral nature is absolute and unchanging. God always hates evil and loves good. The Bible shows the difference between the two, demonstrating how unambiguous ethics apply to all people at all times.

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide27

The View of Jesus Christ

Law

God created human government and rule of law to contain man's sinful nature. God's Word and nature are sufficient for man to devise laws that reflect man's creative image, while recognizing his depravity.

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide28

Economics

System promotes justice by protecting rights of individuals; basic checks and balances defend human rights, and grant men responsibility and ownership –- in both private property and economic decisions.

The View of Jesus Christ

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide29

Politics

Government enforces law to keep man’s evil in check, while offering him the freedom to express his goodness. Government has checked obligations, not totalitarian powers.

The View of Jesus Christ

Politics (Evolution; Proletariat Rule.)

Economics (Socialism/Communism.)

Law (State is source for "truth.“)

Ethics (Man decides, must advance state.)

Sociology (State abolishes institutions)

Theology (Man accountable to self)

Truth/Reality (Man is good, defines truth)

slide30

The Oracle of Delphi proclaimed that Socrates was the wisest man of Greece.

Socrates responded, “’Tis because I alone of all the Greeks know that I know nothing.”

theory of forms
THEORY OF FORMS
  • Truth Exists Out There …
    • Accessible in Us through Reason.
theory of forms35
THEORY OF FORMS
  • Truth Exists Out There …
    • Accessible in Us through Reason.
  • The World Is an Illusion (Shadow.)
theory of forms36
THEORY OF FORMS
  • Truth Exists Out There …
    • Accessible in Us through Reason.
  • The World Is an Illusion (Shadow.)
  • Good and Evil.
theory of forms37
THEORY OF FORMS
  • Truth Exists Out There …
    • Accessible in Us through Reason.
  • The World Is an Illusion (Shadow.)
  • Good and Evil.
  • Identity: Immortal Soul.
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“The body alone and its desires cause wars because we are enslaved by the wishes of the body. For if it is impossible to have pure knowledge while we have a body, one or two things must be true. While we live we come closest to true knowledge if we have no use for or communion with the body beyond what is absolutely necessary. And if we are not defiled by its nature we must live pure of the body until God releases us.”

-- Socrates

implications of gnosticism
IMPLICATIONS OF GNOSTICISM
  • Legalism: Obeying the rules to hold back desires like sexuality, hunger, desires for appreciation, respect, comfort, etc.
  • Hedonism: Fully experiencing the pleasures of the body as an end to themselves. They are not “the real you” anyway.
slide42

1 Corinthians 6:19-20

Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own? For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.

New King James Version