Emotion • Emotion – basic components: • Physiological arousal • Expressive behaviors • Consciously expressed thoughts
4Theories of Emotion • James-Lange Theory • Cannon-Bard Theory • Two-Factor Theory • Opponent-Process Theory
James-Lange Theory • Emotions are experienced in the following sequence: • an emotional stimulus is presented, causing one to experience • , which are then • consciously as an • Presumes: • Problem: some emotions have same physiological changes • Examples: • “When you feel your heart pound and you start to sweat, you get really scared”
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion • and occur at the • Emotional stimulus is simultaneously routed to (awareness of emotion)and system (body arousal) • Example:
Two-Factor Theory of EmotionAKA Schachter-Singer Theory • Experience of emotion depends on two factors: and the of that arousal. • The label people give an emotion depends on what they find in their environment. • Arousal without a label is not an emotion; a label without arousal does not lead to emotional behavior. • Experiments • Example: • See Jason Cognitive Label “I’m Afraid”
Spill Over Effect • Spill over effect- emotional arousal from one event spills over into our response of the next event • Supports Theory • -stirred up state can be experienced as one emotion or another very different one depending on how we interpret or label it • Example:
Opponent Process TheoryRichard Solomon • Happiness/Sadness • Fear/Relief • Pleasure Pain • Love/Hate • Emotions disrupt homeostasis…opposing emotion enables a return to homeostasis • Example:
Theories of Emotion Practice • Paul encounters a growling wild animal, and feels a faster heartbeat, widening eyes, and a physical urge to flee. • Monica is smiling and laughing and wants to hug Mrs. Joseph because she just received a 5 on her AP Psych Exam. • Zak just received a 1 on his AP Psych Exam (because he has Mr. Jeter…just kidding Mr. Jeter) and feels a pounding in his chest, perspiration runs down his face and he has an urge to hit someone. • Use each of the theories of emotion to explain Paul, Monica and Zak’s emotions
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System • Autonomic nervous system – regulates physiological arousal of emotion • Sympathetic nervous system • Arousing • Parasympathetic nervous system • Calming
Arousal and Performance • Moderate arousal is ideal • Higher on
Brain Differences and Emotion • Brain activity is different depending on emotion - consistent with the ________________Theory • Amygdala – • Thalamus/ Right Hemisphere – • Right prefrontal cortex/frontal lobe – • Left prefrontal cortex/Frontal lobe - • Nucleus accumbens – pleasure • Anterior cingulate cortex - James-Lange
Physiological Differences • Polygraph – supports ________ Theory • Used to detect lies • Measures • Problems • Anxiety, irritation, guilt have similar physiological activity • Guilty Knowledge Test –
Cognition and Emotion • Sometimes emotions cognition (Zajonc) • Develop emotional preference for stimuli to which have been unknowingly exposed . • Some emotions occur without cognition, the (LeDoux).Go directly from to = fast/ automatic emotional response • Ex. Jump at rustling bushes in the forest (fear most likely precedes conscious thinking) 3. Emotions arise when we appraise event to be beneficial or harmful whether we know it or not(Lazarus) =
Injecting a person with an excitatory chemical that activates the sympathetic nervous system is likely to increase his or her subjective experience of intense fear and anxiety. Use one of the major theories of emotion to account for the effects of this chemical on a person's emotional state. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining these effects? Why?
Detecting Emotion • Nonverbal cues • Duchenne smile • Difficult to detect lying • better than
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior • better than • Detecting emotions • Emotional responsiveness • Facial expressions of emotion • Exception:
Culture and Emotional Expression • Similarities: • Differences • Individualistic countries – • Gestures vary
The Effects of Facial Expressions • Facial feedback – effect of facial expressions on emotion • Example: • Behavior Feedback Theory – effect of your behavior on emotions • Example:
A newspaper advice columnist suggests that thinking can be controlled and changed but that emotions are gut-level, biological reactions that can't be controlled or modified. Use your knowledge of emotion research and theory to either support or refute the columnist's claim.
Basic Emotions • 10 Basic Emotions at birth(Izard) • Other’s are combo of the 10 basic
Fear • Adaptive value of fear • Learned • Conditioning - • Observational Learning • The biology of fear • Phobias – fear disrupts ability to cope
A motivational speaker claims “Fear is a learned response! Babies are not born with fears; they learn fears, which means fear can be unlearned!” Use your knowledge of the relationships between conditioning and the biology of fear to critique the motivational speaker's claims.
Anger • Anger • Evoked by events • Catharsis – emotional release • Catharsis hypothesis – relieves aggressive urges/calms temporarily if • Example:
Andrea is furious because her steady boyfriend spent half an hour talking with his former girlfriend at last night's school dance. A friend suggests that Andrea ought to get the anger out of her system by repeatedly pounding her pillow while she imagines that she is hitting her boyfriend. Explain why this might be an ineffective way for Andrea to reduce her anger. Suggest better ways.
Happiness • Happiness • Feel-good, do-good phenomenon – • Example : • Well-being – happiness/satisfaction with life • Example:
HappinessThe Short Life of Emotional Ups and Downs • Watson’s studies
HappinessWealth and Well-Being Diminishing Returns Phenomenon - Once you have enough money for comfort, having more money isn’t as meaningful
Happiness • Happiness and Prior Experience • Adaptation-level phenomenon - tendency people have to quickly adapt to a new situation, until that situation becomes the norm. • Example – • Happiness and others’ attainments • Relative deprivation – tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily influenced by others’ attainment • Example -
Jim, a 42-year-old engineer, is unhappy about his yearly salary, although it is the highest salary he has ever earned. His wife, Carla, suggests that he vividly recall how little he earned at the age of 32. She also recommends that he watch a TV program about famine victims in Africa. • Use your understanding of psychological principles to explain why Carla's suggestions might help to increase Jim's feelings of economic satisfaction.
Stress and Health • Health psychology - subfield of psychology that contributes to the prevention and treatment of illness • Example: • Behavioral medicine - interdisciplinary field that integrates and applies behavioral and medical knowledge to health and disease
Stress and Illness • Stress - process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges. • Stress appraisal • Short-lived or perceived as challenges = • Prolonged = • Activation of sympathetic nervous system • Fight or flight (Cannon) - Adrenal glands secrete into blood steam • (outer part of adrenal glands) • Tend and befriend (women)
Stress • Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS) • Life Changing Units (LCUs)- marriage, change job, etc… • The more LCUs you have the higher your score is on the SRRS. • Those who score higher are more likely to have stress related disease.
Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome • Describes our response to a stressful event. • Three stages • Alarm • Resistance • Exhaustion • Sources of Stress – daily hassles, too many things to do
Stress and the Heart • Coronary heart disease – closing of vessels that nourish the heart • Type A versus Type B (Friedman and Rosenman) • Type A – • Type B –
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease • Psychophysiological illnesses – stress related physical illness • Examples – • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – how psych, neural and endocrine system together affect immune system • Lymphocytes – 2 types of white blood cells • B lymphocytes – • T lymphocytes – • Macrophage – Immune system agent that ingests worn-out red blood cells and tiny harmful bacteria • Natural Killer (NK cells) - Immune system cells that pursue and destroy diseased body cells
Stress and Disease • Arthritis – overactive immune system causes body to attack own tissue • AIDS – stress can speed progression of HIV to AIDS by limiting production of lymphocytes • Cancer – doesn’t create cancer cells, but may affect their growth by suppressing the activity of t-lymphocytes
What advice would a health psychologist give to a student about the stress of an AP exam? What are the potential benefits of this stressor, and what are the possible disadvantages of long-term stress?