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Contemporary Social Disorganization Theory Sampson’s “Collective Efficacy” Theory. Effort to link poverty, instability, immigrant concentration (ethnic heterogeneity) with crime through the concept of collective efficacy . .

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contemporary social disorganization theory sampson s collective efficacy theory
Contemporary Social Disorganization Theory Sampson’s “Collective Efficacy” Theory
  • Effort to link poverty, instability, immigrant concentration (ethnic heterogeneity) with crime through the concept of collective efficacy.
slide2

Contemporary Social Disorganization Theory Sampson’s “Collective Efficacy” Theory

  • Poverty
  • Residential instability
  • Ethnic heterogeneity

Neighborhood

crime rates

Diminished community social

organization/collective efficacy

slide3

Social Organization/Collective EfficacyRelationships Among Key Dimensions

Informal social

control

Social

cohesion

Social

Infrastructure

COLLECTIVEEFFICACY

* Density of social

networks

* Prevalence of

and participation

in local voluntary

organizations

Mutual trust

and solidarity

among local

residents

Willingness of

neighborhood

residents to

Intervene to

prevent crime

slide4

Collective Efficacy Theory

  • Poverty
  • Residential instability
  • Ethnic heterogeneity

Neighborhood

Crime rates

* Density of social

networks

* Prevalence of,

and participation

in, local voluntary

organizations

Willingness of

neighborhood

residents to

Intervene to

prevent crime

Mutual trust

and solidarity

among local

residents

collective efficacy theory policy recommendations
Collective Efficacy TheoryPolicy Recommendations
  • Identify neighborhood “hot spots”
  • Reduce social disorder and physical incivilities
  • Build informal social control, social capital
  • Promote housing-based neighborhood stabilization
  • De-concentrate poverty: scattered site new housing
  • Maintain and build the Municipal Service Base
  • Integrate community with child development/health policy
  • Increase community power/organizational base
social disorganization and social control
Social disorganization and Social Control
  • Social disorganization / collective efficacy theory assumes that human beings naturally seek to satisfy basic appetites. In the absence of regulatory force (norms, supervision, etc.)
    • Hobbes social contract theory
    • Durkheim’s anomie theory
generality vs specialization
Generality vs. Specialization
  • Generality: an indiscriminate or “generalized” pattern of deviant activity
  • Specialization: a focused tendency toward specific types of deviant acts
slide11
Strain TheoryAnomie as the Disjuncture Between Goals and MeansTimeline of Intellectual Development

Cloward and Ohlin

Delinquency and Opportunity

-Integrating economic and status strain

  • Major theoretical contributions:

Merton

Social Theory and

Social Structure

-Economic strain

Cloward

“Illegitimate Means…”

Agnew

“A General

Strain Theory…”

Cohen

Delinquent Boys: The

Culture of the Gang

-Status strain

Theory falls

out of

favor

Durkheim

1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

durkheim s concept of anomie
Durkheim’s Concept of Anomie
  • Rapid structural
  • change
  • Economic improvement
  • Economic decline

Anomie (part 1):

Attenuation of norms

regulating occupational

aspirations / expectations

Anomie (part 2):

Disjuncture between

Aspirations and expectations

durkheim s concept of anomie anomic disjuncture between needs and means
Durkheim’s Concept of AnomieAnomic disjuncture between needs and means

Rapid economic decline|Rapid economic improvement:

Means

Needs

Anomic disjuncture between needs and means

robert merton social structure and anomie
Robert Merton“Social Structure and Anomie”
  • Cultural goals: comprise a “frame of aspirational reference”—while some are related to biological drives, they are not determined by them.
  • Institutional norms: regulations regarding the appropriate procedures for achieving cultural goals. The most expedient means may not be culturally approved.
robert merton social structure and anomie15
Robert Merton“Social Structure and Anomie”
  • Cultural Universalism:
    • All should strive for the same lofty goals because they are open to all
    • Short-term failure should not deter one from the goal of success
    • Failure is in adopting low ambitions
robert merton social structure and anomie16
Robert Merton“Social Structure and Anomie”
  • American society characterized by “cultural imbalance”: an emphasis on economic success to the virtual exclusion of other goals; relative indifference to the means by which success is gained.
robert merton social structure and anomie17
Robert Merton“Social Structure and Anomie”
  • Social structural strain: social structure limits access to the means to achieve economic success for some resulting in a situation of social structural strain—defined as a discrepancy between aspiration and expectation
robert merton social structure and anomie18
Robert Merton“Social Structure and Anomie”
  • What is the role of socialization in Merton’s approach?
  • Is Merton’s strain theory also, in part, a control theory?
albert cohen delinquent boys
Albert CohenDelinquent Boys
  • Most crime is “non-utilitarian, malicious…”
  • Middle class status is the key cultural goal
  • Working class vs. middle class ethic distinguishes cultural resources of children
cohen class based cultural worlds
Working class ethic

Ethic of reciprocity

Dependence on primary group

Spontaneity

Emotionally “irrepressible”

Freer/less disguised expression of aggression

Difficulty adopting roles more remote to identity

Less polish, sophistication, personality needed to “sell onself”

Middle class ethic

Ambition is a virtue

Ethic of individual responsibility

Cultivation and possession of skills

Worldly asceticism

Rationality

Cultivation of manners, courtesy, personability

Control of physical aggression and violence

Recreation should be “wholesome”

Respect for property

CohenClass-based Cultural Worlds
cohen delinquent boys
CohenDelinquent Boys

Class continuum

Working class

Middle class

Low socialization

to middle class;

High likelihood

of rejection; lower likelhood of “reaction formation” in response to rejection.

More effective socialization

to middle class; Lower likelihood of rejection; Greater likelihood of “reaction formation” in response to rejection

review of classic strain theory
Review of Classic Strain Theory
  • “Appetites” become “cultural goals” (goals are culturally given not biologically based)
  • Focus on blocked mobility among lower class
  • Key goals are:
    • Monetary success (Merton)
    • Middle class status (Cohen)
  • Delinquency stems from variation in motivation to commit crime based on class status and access to means to achieve success goals
  • If Merton and Cohen are right, what do we do to reduce crime?
critique of classic strain theory
Critique of Classic Strain Theory
  • Can’t explain middle class delinquency
  • Don’t take into account goals other than monetary success/middle class status
  • Don’t consider barriers to achievement other than social class
  • Don’t specify why only some strained individuals turn to delinquency