Autumn Nicholson-Hector Fontanet-Joanna Maier-Natasha Carlsen-Nina Jolani Egypt: Enviromental Case Study POL 371 Environmental Policy
Egypt an Introduction… • Information on the land of the Pharaohs and Pyramids • Area: 1,001, 449 square kilometers • The Nile • Population: roughly 80,335,036 • Problems • Divisions • Environmental Role
Environmental Issues Within Egypt • The principal concerns are • water quality and quantity, • rapid urban growth, • air pollution, • soil loss and • the environmental consequences of tourism.
Water Pollution: Aswan High Dam and its Effect • Majority of Egypt’s water is from the Nile River • The Aswan High Dam has reduced the flow of the Nile which causes the trapping of nutrient-rich silt. This silt trapped by the damn once fertilized the country’s farmland. • In order to make up for the loss of the nutrient-rich silt, agricultures increase the utilization of chemical fertilizers, adding to water pollution • Also employ modern herbicides and pesticides to increase crop production, which also add to the pollution • With the Aswan High Dam reducing the flow of the Nile River, the concentration of pollutants in the remaining Nile River increases.
Loss of Soil for Agricultural Land • The Aswan High Dam, causes the year-round irrigation of the little available soil to accumulate with salt. • The water seized behind the Dam causes this, it leads to the loss of some agricultural land. • Another cause of agricultural land loss is the effect of urbanization from the large populations. • Only 4% of land is suitable for agriculture. • Soil fertility has continued to decline due to over cultivation.
With 97% of Egypt’s land is classified as desert land, • the land area in Egypt that is actually occupied is only 5%, • with less than 4% of the land being suitable for agriculture. • Because such a small percentage of Egypt’s land mass is habitable, population densities average in some locations along the Nile River greater than 1,000 people per square kilometer.
Water Pollution: Sewage Disposal • Egypt’s highly population dense cities produce an average of 3.0 million tons of solid waste per year. In the rural areas although, • only 79% of the population have sufficient sanitation disposal amenities available; • the city of Cairo, with a population of 15 million people, has half of its raw sewage carried to the sea in open sewers. • Approximately 100 of 120 towns in Egypt do not have sewer systems present at all. • Even with the current sewer systems in Cairo, they are sub-par. • In December of 1982, a large area of the city was flooded with untreated waste and was unable to temporarily provide tap water for about 10% of its population due to the bursting of a sewer main.
Egypt Ranks 16th Worst Place in World Sanitation Table • Proper disposal of waste would help protect people from diseases arising from water contamination, such as typhoid, diarrhea, polio, bilharzia and hepatitis C. • Twenty percent of global infant mortality is accounted for by diarrhea, a problem in Egypt due to contaminated water.
Tourism: Its downfalls • The inadequately controlled erection of new tourist centers and the waste disposal of such, along the eastern coast have corrupted the water quality of the Red Sea.
Coast Line • Along with the negative effect of tourism comes the threat of damaging the delicate desert areas and the marine corals along the coast. • The coast is also affected by the pollution of oil, as the • nation’s beaches, • coral reefs, • and wildlife habitats are in jeopardy.
Wildlife in Danger • Less than 1% of Egypt’s total land area is protected wildlife due to environmental issues. • In 2000, 15 of Egypt's 98 mammal species, 11 birds, 6 types of reptiles and 1 type of amphibian were endangered. • About 59 of the nation's 2,076 plant species were threatened with extinction. • Endangered species include the Sinai leopard, northern bald ibis, and green sea turtle. The Bubal hartebeest, Egyptian barbary sheep, and Sahara oryx are extinct.
Environmental Impact of the Transportation Sector • Major contributor of Greenhouse gasses • 31.6 million tons of CO2, representing nearly 26% of the energy-related CO2 emissions in Egypt • Great deal of smog on urban areas (i.e. Cairo) • Growth of population, economy and pace of urbanization • Growth greatly outpaced the capacity of the public transportation system • Gap filled by the use of private cars and taxis
Causes of high emissions from the transportation sector • The average vehicle age is relatively old • Vehicle age averages 10 yrs. • Less efficient • Less pollution controls • Almost all trucks and buses use diesel fuel and have old-generation diesel engines • EXTREMELY DIRTY! • No Catalytic Converter or Diesel Particle Filter (DPF)
Components of Engine Emissions • CO (Carbon Monoxide)-Directly linked to deaths • NOx (NO and NO2)-Acid rain, smog • HC (Hydrocarbons)-HC+NOx=ground level Ozone • SOx (SO2, SO3)-Acid rain • PM (Particulate Matter)-Soot • CO2(Carbon Dioxide)-Greenhouse gas
Technology to clean emissions • Vehicle emissions testing and tuning program • Newer cars with EGR and Catalytic Convertors • Newer Fleet Vehicles (Diesels) with DPF • Using Alternative cleaner fuels • CNG • LPG • Biodiesel • Hydrogen
Vehicle Emissions Testing and tuning program • Started in Cairo and is progressively spreading • Initially found that 34% of the cars registered in Cairo did not pass emission standards • Forces cars to be kept under emission levels and proper operating performance (efficiency)
Alternative cleaner fuelsCNG (Compressed Natural Gas) • Reduce carbon monoxide emissions 90%-97% • Reduce carbon dioxide emissions 25% • Reduce nitrogen oxide emissions 35%-60% • Potentially reduce hydrocarbon emissions 50%-75% • Emit fewer toxic and carcinogenic pollutants • Emit little or no particulate matter • Eliminate evaporative emissions • Already produced in Egypt
LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) • Produce half the particulate matter of average diesel vehicles • Significantly reduce carbon monoxide emissions • Reduce nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbon emissions by 50% or more • Potentially reduce carbon dioxide emissions 25% depending on the source of the natural gas • Drastically reduce toxic and carcinogenic pollutants • Increase methane emissions
Biodiesel • Produces half the particulate matter • Produces half the carbon monoxide emission • Produces less than half the hydrocarbons • Produces about a 10% more NOx than Diesel • Significant decrease in SO2 production • No significant decrease in CO2 emissions • Ease of application
Hydrogen • Extremely clean combustion • Emits only H2O • Costly to produce hydrogen • Costly to implement technology
Government help • Vehicle Emissions Testing and tuning program • The government introduced a smart card system • a driver can convert their car for free to use natural gas • used to buy natural gas at same price as gasoline • natural gas costs about half as much as gasoline • the difference would be used to pay for the conversion • Government loans and incentives
Energy Efficient Efforts in Egypt • Load Shifting • Energy Efficient Education and Market Support • Industry Support • Standards • Building Codes • Renewable Energy • Cogeneration
Load Shifting • Utility billing for Electricity based on: • Energy Use • Peak Demand (15-30min Intervals) • Load Shifting: reworking your load schedule to run in off peak hours. • Saves $; reduces stress on the power grid
Education and Market Support • Lighting: Incandescent to CFLs • 18 lm/W vs 70 lm/W • Lifetime: 750 hrs vs. 10,000 hrs • Promotion for local CFL manufacturing • Energy Efficient Appliances • Refrigerators • Washing Machines • A/C
Market Support Cont. • New Energy Efficient Building Codes • Residential Sector • Commercial Sector (Draft) • Similar to US building codes based on ASHRAE 90.1 • Insulation • Energy Efficient Windows • Standards for Unconditioned buildings
Renewable Energy • Wind Farms • Provide 600 MW of electric capacity • Solar Thermal Energy • Photovoltaic Water Pumping
Cogeneration • Cogeneration: Combined Heat and Power • Use steam created for manufacturing processes to generate power or use waste heat generated from power to create steam. Steam to Power Power to Steam
Egypt’s Policy Efforts Within the Country President Hosni Mubarak
Law 48 of 1982, Protection of Nile River Pollution • Historical Importance of the Nile • Uniqueness of Law 48 • clearly defines what is considered a water channel • special budget to be set aside that will help in dealing with the consequences of disobeying the law • “Article 20 This law will be published in the official newspaper and will be put into action after 3 months from date of publication. This law will be stamped by the official State stamp and will be applicable as one of other laws”
Identifying the Issues and forming an Agency • Egypt’s Environmental Issues • Air & Water Pollution • The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency • Formulation • Function
Law 102 of 1983, Natural Protectorates and all other Environmental Legislations • A brief synopsis: • was written to protect bodies of surrounding water from getting polluted because of cultural, scientific, touristic or esthetic value. • lead in to the current articles that are mentioned to protect bodies of water in Law 4.
Law 4 of 1994 • Protection of Air Environment from Pollution • Articles 34 to 39 • Article 34: any projects or urban plans must be in compliance of the land use. It further mentions that such criteria for determination of land use may base off of wind direction and or distance from habitation. • Article 35: reinstates all the establishments under Annex (2) and specifically notes that there must be an assessment of the environmental impact of any activity that will take place. • Article 36: focuses on the limits of air pollutants and the establishment of a limit permitted by laws and decrees.
1. Vehicles currently in service: 2. New vehicles licensed as of 1995: 1. Vehicles currently in service: 2. New vehicles licensed as of 1995: Law 4 of 1994, Cont. • Article 37: intent is to establish the limits for engine and vehicle exhaust, the following information from the original Law 4 document helps to explain these limits: 1. Vehicles currently in service: CARBON MONOXIDE: 7% in volume at the speed of (600-900 R.P.M.) UNBURNED HYDROCARBONS: 1000 parts in a million, at the speed of (600-900 R.P.M.) SMOKES 65% degree of opacity or the equivalent in other units, at minimum acceleration 2. New vehicles licensed as of 1995: CARBON MONOXIDE: 4.5% in volume at the speed of (600-900 R.P.M.) UNBURNED HYDROCARBONS: 900 parts in a million, at the speed of (600-900 R.P.M.) SMOKES 50% degree of opacity or the equivalent in other units, at maximum acceleration.
Law 4 of 1994, Cont. • Article 38: makes aware that it is prohibited to treat or burn any materials or wastes near habitations or waterways. Specific guidelines have been set in accordance with this article, ex “That the place where the garbage is incinerated stands at a minimum distance of 1.5 kilometers from populated, industrial and downwind areas” • Article 39: of the air pollution section emphasizes on the specific cleanliness and steps that collectors of garbage are to take in order to prevent odors as well as attractions of flies or other animals in certain areas.
Law 4 of 1994, Cont. • Protection of Water Environment from Pollution • Articles 50-56 • Article 50: all ships that carry oil must report if an oil spill occurs. The occurrence must entail a description with all the information of the oil spill incident. • Article 51: focuses on the proper equipments of ports and the directions needed to dispose waste and unclean ballast water. • Article 52: highlights the process of discharging oil in accordance to offshore platforms. • Article 53: mentions that a guarantee certificate “must be presented when the tanker enters the territorial seas” • Article 54: begins the section 2 which is titled, Pollution from Sewage and Garbage. It gives a thorough procedure for the discharge of polluted waste water from ships and offshore platforms. • Article 55: states that facilities must be provide for ships to deposit waste and they must regulate to on cleanliness and sterilization. • Article 56: is in accordance with the last article and implies that the facilities must “ensure that such waste is not dispersed”
Egypt’s Environmental Policy Efforts On an International Level
International Influences on Egyptian Environmental Policy Actors • IGO’S / NGO’s- act to enhance socio-economic development, avert humanitarian crisis, and address environmental concerns • Individual State Intervention- foreign aid often is stipulated by rational self-interest. USAID and CAID cite “stability and security of the region” as the motivation for their sustainable development programs.
International Influence on Egyptian Environmental Policy Incidents • Coastal Marine-life demise Coral reef bleaching Loss of biodiversity Erosion • Degradation of the Nile Basin causes erosion and pollution limited water/ less seasonal flooding partnership of the NBI
International Influences on Egyptian Environmental Policy Threats • Climate Change refugees and IDP’s • Israel’s Dimona Reactor
International Treaties or Conventions: Ratified or Signed • 1935 Flora and Fauna • May 9th 1988 Vienna Convention • May 2nd 2003 Stockholm Convention • Jan. 12th 2005 Kyoto Protocol