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Development of Theories of Crime. Past to present Francis Cullen & Robert Agnew (1999). Biological & Psychological Theories of Crime. The criminal Man: Cesare Lombroso (1911) Genetic drawbacks, born criminal; Positivism Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency: Glueck & Glueck (1950)

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Development of Theories of Crime

Past to present

Francis Cullen & Robert Agnew (1999)

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Biological & Psychological Theories of Crime

  • The criminal Man: Cesare Lombroso (1911)

    • Genetic drawbacks, born criminal; Positivism

  • Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency: Glueck & Glueck (1950)

    • Individual traits: hyperactivity, impulsivity, sensation seeking

  • Social Learning and Aggression: Albert Bandura (1973)

    • Aggression is reinforced and punished

  • Crime and Human Nature: Wilson & Herrnstein (1985)

    • Individual’s perception of the reward and costs of crime are influenced by individual traits and social environment

  • Pathways in the Life course to crime: Terrie E. Moffitt (1933)

    • Adolescent-limited offending, life course-persistent offending

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The Chicago School: The City, Social Disorganization and Crime

Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas: Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay (1942)

  • Macro-level ecology of crime drawing from Burgess’s city map (zone in transition); breakdown of the social institutions (e.g., family disruption)

  • Community Social Disorganization and Crime: Robert Sampson and Byron Groves (1989)

    • Community varied in their informal social control

    • Macrostructural factors caused race-based inequality in urban ghetto; concentrated disadvantages

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    Learning to be a Criminal: Differential Association, Subcultural, and Social Learning Theories

    • A Theory of Differential Association: Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey (1960)

      • Individual commits crime because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to the violation.

    • Techniques of Neutralization: Gresham Sykes and David Matza (1957)

      • Denial of responsibility, injury, victim; the condemnation of condemners; the appeal to higher loyalties

    • A Social Learning Theory of Crime: Ronald Akers (1994)

      • Beliefs, reinforcement, imitation

    • The Thesis of a Subculture of Violence: Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti (1982)

    • The Code of the Streets: Elijah Anderson (1994)

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    Anomie/Strain Theories of Crime Subcultural, and Social Learning Theories

    • Social Structure and Anomie: Robert Merton (1938)

      • Strong emphasis on the goal; weak emphasis on the legitimate norms for achievement

    • Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang: Albert Cohen (1955)

      • Goal blockage; broader goals; rejection of middle class values

    • Delinquency and Opportunity: Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1960)

      • Criminal subcultures (theft); conflict subcultures (fighting); retreatist subcultures (drug use)

    • Crime and the American Dream: Richard Rosenfeld and Steven Messner (1995)

      • It’s not how you play the game; it’s whether you win or lose

    • A General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency: Robert Agnew (1992) - three sources of strain (prevent, remove, present)

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    Varieties of Control Theory Subcultural, and Social Learning Theories

    • Social Bond Theory: Travis Hirschi (1969)

      • Why don’t they do it?; attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief

    • A General Theory of Crime: Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi (1990)

      • Self-control theory; ineffective child-rearing

    • Crime and the Life Course: Robert Sampson and John Laub (1993)

      • Change, transition, life events (marriage, job)

    • A Power-Control Theory of Gender: John Hagan (1989)

      • Power relations between father and mother (patriarchal vs. egalitarian)

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    Integrated Theories of Crime Subcultural, and Social Learning Theories

    • An Integrated Theoretical Perspective on Delinquent Behavior: Elliott, et al (1979)

      • End-to-end strategy; strain, learning, control

    • Toward an Integrated Theory of Delinquency: Terence Thornberry (1987)

      • Developmental process, reciprocal effects

    • Social Support and Crime: Francis Cullen (1994)

      • Common theme (I.e., social support)

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    Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories Subcultural, and Social Learning Theories

    • Crime and Punishment: an Economic Approach: Gary Becker (1968)

      • Number of offenses is a function of probabilies of arrest, severity

    • Crime as a Rational Choice: Derek Cornish and Ronald Clarke (1986)

      • Making of decisions and of choice as rationality

    • Routine Activity Theory: Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson (1979)

      • Motivated offender (given), suitable target (benefit), absence of guardian (cost)

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    Labeling, Interaction, and Crime: Societal Reaction and the Creation of Criminals

    • Crime and the Community: Tannenbaum

      • Dramatization of Evil

    • Primary and Secondary Deviance: Edwin Lemert (1952)

    • Reflected Appraisals, Parental Labeling, and Delinquency: Ross Matsueda (1992)

      • Symbolic interactionism

    • Crime, Shame, and Reintegration: John Braithwaite (1989)

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    Critical Criminology: Power, Inequality, and Crime Creation of Criminals

    • Criminality and Economic Conditions: William Adrian Bonger (1969)

      • Egoism, bourgeois crime, class character of penal law

    • Class, State, and Crime: Richard Quinney (1980)

      • Peacemaking criminology; social justice

    • Delinquency and the Age Structure of Society: David Greenberg (1977)

      • delinquency within historically structured conditions; masculine status anxiety

    • An Integrated Structural-Marxist Theory of Delinquency: Mark Colvin and John Pauly (1983)

      • Parents’ class position in labor market; coercive sanction

    • Social Capital and Crime: John Hagan (1994)

      • Social capital, cultural capital, recapitalization

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    Feminist Theories: Gender, Power, and Crime Creation of Criminals

    • Sisters in Crime: Freda Adler

    • Feminism and Criminology: Kathleen Daly and Meda Chesney-Lind

    • Masculinities and Crime: James Messerschmidt