Theories of Crime & Deviance. Demonology Classical & Neo-Classical Theory Positivism & the Ecological Approach Biological Theories Psychological Approaches Sociological Approaches. Demonology. Crime caused by demonic activity Offender to be purged of evil presence. Classical Theory.
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Theories of Crime & Deviance • Demonology • Classical & Neo-Classical Theory • Positivism & the Ecological Approach • Biological Theories • Psychological Approaches • Sociological Approaches
Demonology • Crime caused by demonic activity • Offender to be purged of evil presence
Classical Theory • Origin: about 1764 • Founders: Cesare Beccaria, Jeremy Bentham • Based on ‘hedonistic calculus’ • Punishment should fit the crime • Punishment should be applied equally
Neo-Classical Theory • Introduced idea of mitigating factors • Age & situational context taken into account
Positivism & the Ecological Approach • Positivism – emphasizes measuring, accumulating & assessing data • Ecological approach identified relationships between criminality and geographical & social factors
Biological Approaches • Core ideas: • Biological and mental traits make some people crime-prone. • These traits are inherited and present at birth. • Mental and physical degeneracies are the cause of crime.
Lombroso & Biological Atavism • Study of inmates • Physical characteristics of inmates differ from law-abiding citizens • Problems with atavism
Sheldon & Somatatyping • Temperament affected by body type • Endomorph • Ectomorph • mesomorph
XYY THEORY • Based on studies of inmates • “super-male” • Problems with xyy theory
Genetic Predispositions • Some individuals predisposed to: • Alcoholism • Suicide • Mental illness • Other deviant and criminal behavior
Biological Roots of Criminal Behaviour • Chemical and Environmental Precursors • *eating habits, vitamin deficiencies, blood • sugar levels • * Dan White and the Twinkie Defence” • * Robert Parsons and the “sugar blackout' defence • Hormones and Criminality • Testosterone, pre-menstrual syndrome • Christine English and Dr. Geraldine Richeter
Psychological approaches • Focus on the individual (cognitive, behavioral, neurological, developmental) • Examples: • psychoanalytic theory • Psychopathy
The Psychopath • Lack empathy and guilt • Highly manipulative • Emotionally shallow • Often outwardly charming • History of violence & abuse • Abnormal physiological responses to stressors
Sociological Approaches • Micro sociology emphasizes social processes • Example: learning the symbols of a culture/subculture • Macrosociology emphasizes social structures • Example: class inequalities cause crime