chapter 21 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 21 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 21

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Chapter 21 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 280 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 21 Musical Sounds 1. NOISE VERSUS MUSIC Wham - Noise and Wave Forms Three characteristics of a musical tone: Pitch Loudness Quality 2. PITCH The pitch of a sound relates to its frequency. The exact relationship is complex.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 21' - Pat_Xavi


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 21

Chapter 21

Musical Sounds

1 noise versus music
1. NOISE VERSUS MUSIC

Wham - Noise and Wave Forms

Three characteristics of a musical tone:

Pitch

Loudness

Quality

2 pitch
2. PITCH
  • The pitch of a sound relates to its frequency.
  • The exact relationship is complex.
  • For simple sounds, the greater the frequency the greater the pitch.
  • For complex sounds, pitch assignment is an involved psychological process.
change pitch by altering the vibrating source
Change pitch by altering the vibrating source.
  • Response to high pitch usually declines with age.
3 sound intensity and loudness
3. SOUND INTENSITY AND LOUDNESS
  • Intensity -

refers to pressure variations

  • Intensity is directly proportional to the pressure amplitude squared.
  • The human ear can hear intensities over a tremendously large range.
  • Loudness depends on intensity in a complicated way. It does not increase as rapidly as intensity.
loudness
Loudness
  • b = 10 log(I/Io)
  • Measured in decibels (db)
    • A difference of 10 dB corresponds to a ratio of intensities of 10X.
  • Loudness depends on our sensitivity to different frequencies.
4 quality
4. QUALITY
  • Quality is the same thing as timbre.
  • It is easy to distinguish two different instruments playing the same note.
  • The quality of a musical sound depends on the number of partial tones and their relative intensities.
harmonics and overtones
Harmonics and Overtones
  • The lowest frequency associated with a musical note is called the fundamental frequency.
  • Any partial that is a whole number multiple of the fundamental frequency is called a harmonic.
  • Overtones are consecutively numbered partials of frequency higher than the fundamental.
speaker shortcomings
Speaker Shortcomings
  • The brain can fill in missing lower harmonics that small speakers cannot create.
5 musical instruments
5. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
  • Three basic types
      • stringed, air column, and percussion
  • Because of energy loss, string sections in orchestras are generally larger.
  • Electronic
6 fourier analysis
6. FOURIER ANALYSIS
  • The eardrum responds to a sum of all the waves arriving at a particular instant. Yet the individual sounds are “heard.”
  • Any waveform is composed of an infinite number of simple sine waves of various frequencies and amplitudes.
adding harmonics18
Adding Harmonics

Spreadsheet

7 compact discs
7. COMPACT DISCS
  • Phonograph players give analog signals.
  • Digital signal is in binary code.
  • CD has flats and pits and is sampled 44,100 times per second.
diatonic c major scale
Diatonic C Major Scale

Letter Frequency Frequency

Note Name (Hz) ratio Interval

do C 264

9/8 Whole

re D 297

10/9 Whole

mi E 330

16/15 Half

fa F 352

9/8 Whole

sol G 396

10/9 Whole

la A 440

9/8 Whole

ti B 495

16/15 Half

do C 528

the quality of a musical note can be changed by simply playing the note on a different instrument
The quality of a musical note can be changed by simply playing the note on a different instrument.

(a) True

(b) False

(a) True

slide24
If the note middle C has a pitch of 262 vibrations per second, its second overtone on a vibrating string has a frequency of

(a) 131 vibrations per second

(b) 262 vibrations per second

(c) 524 vibrations per second

(d) 786 vibrations per second

(e) none of the above

(d) 786 vibrations per second

the three characteristics of a musical tone are loudness quality and timbre
The three characteristics of a musical tone are loudness, quality, and timbre.

(a) True

(b) False

(b) False

slide26

The wavelength of the fundamental vibration on a l m long string is half as long as the wavelength of the fundamental vibration in a closed organ pipe of l m length.

(a) True

(b) False

(a) True

the ear can fourier analyze a sound wave but the eye cannot fourier analyze a light wave
The ear can “Fourier analyze” a sound wave, but the eye cannot “Fourier analyze” a light wave.

(a) True

(b) False

(a) True

slide28
If the fundamental frequency of a violin string is 440 Hz, what is the frequency in Hz of the first overtone?

(a) 1320

(b) 880

(c) 440

(b) 880