IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT ERIK ERIKSON AND JAMES MARCIA. DANIEL AREVALO. BIOGRAPHY . ERIK H. ERIKSON. JAMES E. MARCIA. Current Professor of Psychology at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver Ph.D. at Ohio State University. Born June 15, 1902 Frankfurt , Germany
ERIK H. ERIKSON
JAMES E. MARCIA
Current Professor of Psychology at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver
Ph.D. at Ohio State University
Freud’s Stage Theory
Erikson then goes further than Freud
Like Piaget, Erikson postulated that these stages were cross-cultural and that in accordance to the epigenetic principle, one must go through the stages as life progresses.
These Individuals dress the same way: and example of over-conforming, thus losing their sense of identity
Theorized that during Erikson’s Achievement Stage, these would be the different ways that a person could be. (Note: not one person is ever fully one or the other. People have all kinds of ideals that they hold and some might be under one status while other times they may be another.)
When a Person is in diffusion, their sense of identity is largely derived from those people around them. There is no commitment to this identity but it is a temporary state that can be released and another sense can be just as easily absorbed
This status describes individuals who are actively seeking out their own identity but have no real commitment to who they are.
They are aware however of the alternatives and are exploring them as possible choices.
Under this status are individuals who have explored the alternatives to their life and have come to a conclusion of who they are and what they should be. They commit to this idea of the self .
Individuals who are foreclosed, says Marcia, have simply accepted the norms and customs of their parents (or government) and committed to remaining true to them. There has been no exploration of alternatives.
How will divorce factor into the incidence of Identity achievement?
Will the children with higher socio-economic backgrounds be more or less achieved?
Holy Family of Nazareth School
Harrison Lane Elementary
Using the questions shown on the previous slide, certain questions were pre-selected to be “weighted” questions.
Those questions had responses that would indicate the level of political achievement of the student.
The responses were then judged as indicating a particular status and then they were averaged to a percentage. Students having a higher degree of Foreclosure would by percentage have answered more questions with a foreclosed answer.
Sample Question: How do you get your information to make a decision?
Achievement: I look it up myself in a news paper/online etc. and make up my own mind about it.
Foreclosure: My parents tell me about it.
Moratorium: I look for it online but I do not really make any final decisions
Diffusion: I do not/ My friends tell me.
A half of the number of students that I interviewed were only living with one parent . I wondered if this might affect the results at all so it was included as a minor question.
-Children at such a young age can hardly be expected to be achieved in any manner.
-It is in most cases that any kind of achievement occurs so early on.
-Lack of political knowledge indicated diffusion.
-According to numerous studies, those who are foreclosed tend to have conventional morality while those who are achieved will usually show more post-conventional moral thought.
-Interesting Side note: Erikson points out that those people living in totalitarian governments or households are much more likely to be foreclosed or diffused because of the environment.