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Anatomical position – standing upright with palms facing forward. Superficial anatomy breaks the body into anatomical landmarks and regions Sectional anatomy provides directional references. Figure 1.7 Anatomical Landmarks. Figure 1.7a. Figure 1.7b.

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Anatomical position – standing upright with palms facing forward

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anatomical position standing upright with palms facing forward
Anatomical position – standing upright with palms facing forward
  • Superficial anatomy breaks the body into anatomical landmarks and regions
  • Sectional anatomy provides directional references
planes and sections are important in visualizing structures
Planes and Sections are important in visualizing structures
  • Transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior
  • Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior
  • Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right
    • Midsagittal divides the body exactly down the middle
body cavities
Body Cavities
  • Body cavities are internal chambers holding vital organs
    • Cavities protect vital organs
    • Cavities allow organs to change in shape and size
  • Two body cavities
    • Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity
    • Ventral body cavity includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
thoracic cavities
Thoracic Cavities
  • The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs.
  • It is subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities and the mediastinum
    • Each pleural cavity contains one lung lined by the visceral and parietal pleura
    • The mediastinum contains the pericardium, another serous membrane that surrounds the heart


Animation: Heart Dissection

abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneum
    • The abdominal cavity extends from the diaphragm to the superior margins of the pelvis
      • liver, stomach, spleen and most of the large intestine
abdominopelvic cavity13
Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • The pelvic cavity is bordered by the pelvis, with a floor of muscle
    • reproductive organs, urinary bladder and the final portion of the large intestine


Animation: Digestive System Dissection

clinical technology allows many different views of the body
Clinical technology allows many different views of the body
  • X-rays
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scans
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans
  • Ultrasound images
  • Spiral CT scans
  • Digital subtraction angiography images (DSA)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scans
you should now be familiar with
You should now be familiar with:
  • The characteristics of life.
  • The sciences of anatomy and physiology and their various subdivisions.
  • The levels of organization in the human body.
  • The definition and importance of homeostasis.
  • The terminology associated with superficial and sectional anatomy and the body cavities.
tissues and tissue types
Tissues and tissue types
  • Tissues are:
    • Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions
      • Histology = study of tissues
  • The four tissue types are:
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue
  • Includes glands and epithelium
    • Glands are secretory
  • Is avascular
  • Forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability
  • Cells may show polarity
functions of epithelium
Functions of epithelium
  • Physical protection
  • Control permeability
  • Provide sensation
  • Produce specialized secretions
specializations of epithelium
Specializations of epithelium
  • Perform secretory functions
  • Perform transport functions
  • Maintain physical integrity
  • Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface
maintaining the integrity of epithelium
Maintaining the integrity of epithelium
  • Cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (CAM)
  • Cells attach at specialized cell junctions
    • Tight junctions
    • Desmosomes
    • Gap junctions
structure of typical epithelium
Structure of typical epithelium
  • Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface
    • Lamina lucida
    • Lamina densa
  • Germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells
classification of epithelia
Classification of epithelia
  • Number of cell layers
    • Simple
    • Stratified
  • Shape of apical surface cells
    • Squamous
    • Cuboidal
    • Columnar
glandular epithelia
Glandular epithelia
  • Exocrine glands
    • Secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland
  • Endocrine glands
    • Release hormones into surrounding fluid
glandular secretions can be
Glandular secretions can be:
  • Merocrine (product released through exocytosis)
  • Apocrine (involves the loss of both product and cytoplasm)
  • Holocrine (destroys the cell)
  • Unicellular
    • Individual secretory cells
  • Multicellular
    • Organs containing glandular epithelium
    • Classified according to structure
connective tissue functions
Connective tissue functions:
  • Establishing a structural framework
  • Transporting fluids and dissolved materials
  • Protecting delicate organs
  • Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting tissues
  • Storing energy reserves
  • Defending the body from microorganisms
connective tissues contain
Connective tissues contain
  • Specialized cells
  • Matrix
    • Composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance
connective tissue proper
Connective tissue proper
  • Contains varied cell populations
  • Contains various fiber types
  • A syrupy ground substance
fluid connective tissue
Fluid connective tissue
  • Contains a distinctive cell population
  • Watery ground substance with dissolved proteins
  • Two types
    • Blood
    • Lymph
supporting connective tissues
Supporting connective tissues
  • Less diverse cell population
  • Dense ground substance
  • Closely packed fibers
  • Two types
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
connective tissue proper46
Connective tissue proper
  • Contains fibers, a viscous ground substance, and a varied cell population.
  • The ground substance is the non-living material in which the cells and protein fibres are found.
    • Can contain varying amounts of water.
    • Can be of viscous (blood), semi-solid (cartilage) or solid (bone).
  • The ground substance and the extracellular proteins form the matrix.
Types of cells found in connective tissue:
    • Macrophage
    • Adipocytes
    • Mesenchymal cells
    • Fibroblasts
    • Melanocytes
    • Mast cells
    • Lymphocytes
    • Microphages
connective tissue proper48
Connective tissue proper
  • Three types of fiber
    • Collagen fibers
    • Reticular fibers
    • Elastic fibers
connective tissue proper49
Connective tissue proper
  • Classified as loose or dense
  • Loose
    • Embryonic mesenchyme, mucous connective tissues
    • Areolar tissue
    • Adipose tissue
    • Reticular tissue
  • Dense
    • Dense regular CT
    • Dense irregular CT
fluid connective tissues
Fluid connective tissues
  • Distinctive collections of cells in a fluid matrix
  • Blood
    • Formed elements and plasma
      • Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
    • Arteries carry blood away, veins carry to the heart
    • Capillaries allow diffusion into the interstitial fluid
  • Lymph
    • Interstitial fluid entering the lymphatic vessels
supporting connective tissues58
Supporting connective tissues
  • Cartilage and bone support the rest of the body
  • Cartilage
    • Grows via interstitial and appositional growth
    • Matrix is a firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate
    • Cells called chondrocytes
    • Cells found in lacunae
    • Perichondrium separates cartilage from surrounding tissues
    • Three types: hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage
bone or osseus tissue
Bone, or osseus tissue
  • Has osteocytes
    • Depend on diffusion through canaliculi for nutrients
  • Little ground substance
  • Dense mineralized matrix
  • Surrounded by periosteum
membranes are simple organs
Membranes are simple organs
  • Form a barrier
  • Composed of epithelium and connective tissue
  • Four types
    • Cutaneous
    • Synovial
    • Serous
    • Mucous
mucous membranes
Mucous membranes
  • Line cavities that communicate with the exterior
  • Contain lamina propria
serous membranes
Serous membranes
  • Line sealed internal cavities
  • Form transudate
Cutaneous membrane
    • Covers the body surface
  • Synovial membrane
    • Incomplete lining within joint cavities
organs and systems are interconnected
Organs and systems are interconnected
  • Network of connective tissue proper consisting of
    • Superficial fascia
    • Deep fascia
    • Subserous fascia
muscle tissue
Muscle tissue
  • Specialized for contraction
  • Three types
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
skeletal muscle
Skeletal muscle
  • Cells are multinucleate
  • Striated voluntary muscle
  • Divides via satellite cells
cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle
  • Cardiocytes occur only in the heart
  • Striated involuntary muscle
  • Relies on pacemaker cells for regular contraction
smooth muscle tissue
Smooth muscle tissue
  • Non-striated involuntary muscle
  • Can divide and regenerate
neural tissue
Neural tissue
  • Conducts electrical impulses
  • Conveys information from one area to another
neural tissue cells
Neural tissue cells
  • Neurons
    • Transmit information
  • Neuroglia
    • Support neural tissue
    • Help supply nutrients to neurons
neural anatomy
Neural anatomy
  • Cell body
  • Dendrites
  • Axon (nerve fiber)
    • Carries information to other neurons
inflammation and regeneration
Inflammation and regeneration
  • Injured tissues respond in coordinated fashion
  • Homeostasis restored by inflammation and regeneration
inflammatory response
Inflammatory response
  • Isolates injured area
  • Damaged cells, tissue components and dangerous microorganisms removed
    • Infection avoided
  • Regeneration restores normal function
aging and tissue repair
Aging and tissue repair
  • Change with age
  • Repair and maintenance less efficient
  • Structure altered
  • Chemical composition altered
aging and cancer incidence
Aging and cancer incidence
  • Incidence of cancer increases with age
  • 70-80% of all cases due to exposure to chemicals or environmental factors