introduction to a p
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Introduction to A&P

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Introduction to A&P - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Introduction to A&P. Language of Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomical Position: Body is erect with the face and feet facing forward, palms facing forward. Directional Terms. Superior – above, upper, toward the head Inferior – below, lower, away from the head

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction to A&P' - heath

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
language of anatomy and physiology
Language of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomical Position: Body is erect with the face and feet facing forward, palms facing forward

directional terms
Directional Terms

Superior – above, upper, toward the head

Inferior – below, lower, away from the head

Anterior – towards front, in front of (2 feet)

Posterior – towards back, behind (2 feet)

Ventral - belly (4 feet)

Dorsal – back (4 feet)

Medial - towards the midline, on the inner side of

Lateral – away from the midline, on the outer side of

Proximal – closer to the origin of the body part or point of attachment

Distal – farther from the origin of the body part or point of

Superficial – towards or at the body surface

Deep – away from the body surface

**Don’t forget left and right**

regional terms
Regional Terms

Axial – head, neck, trunk

Appendicular – limbs (arms, hands, legs, feet)

body planes sections
Body Planes (Sections)

Frontal (Coronal) – runs head to toe

divides into anterior and posterior

Sagittal – divide body into right and left from head to toe

Midsagittal (median), Parasagittal – offset from the midline

Transverse plane (Horizontal, Cross section) – runs right to left

divides into superior and inferior

Oblique – cuts made diagonally between horizontal and vertical

body cavities
Body Cavities

Body Cavities

Within the axial region there are 2 large cavities containing organs

Dorsal body cavity (protects CNS)

Ventral body cavity (houses internal organs called viscera)

serous membranes
Serous Membranes

Double layered membranes (called serosa) that line the walls of the ventral body cavity and cover the viscera. Remember, viscera are all the organs within the ventral body cavity

Two layers:

Parietal serosa – covers body wall

Visceral serosa – covers the organ

Serous fluid is made by the membranes and fills the space between the two layers and reduces friction during movement, so that organs can function efficiently

serous membranes1
Serous Membranes

The serous membranes have specific names:

Parietal pleural - Pleural fluid – Visceral pleural  surround lungs

Parietal pericardium - pericardium fluid – Visceral pericardium  surround heart

Parietal peritoneum - peritoneum fluid – Visceral peritoneum  surround abdominal and pelvic cavities

organ systems
Organ Systems

You should be able to identify the indicated structures on the torso models AND know the function and representative organs within each body system (pg 6-7, Marieb textbook)






Cardiovascular (or circulatory)

  • Lymphatic
  • Respiratory
  • Digestive
  • Urinary
  • Reproductive
  • Immune
use and handling of microscope
Use and Handling of Microscope

Always carry with one hand on the arm and the other under the base

Be watchful of the electric cord and rewind when finished

Use only lens paper to clean the lens

Always start and end on the lowest power objective

Focus lowest powers (10X) with the coarse adjustment knob.

Focus high powers (40X, 100X) with the fine adjustment knob ONLY. WE DO NOT USE 100X.

Ensure that you always remove the slide when finished

Replace dust cover when finished

Place assigned microscope back in its correct location.

Total Magnification = Ocular lens Magnification X Objective Magnification

cell cycle1
Cell Cycle
  • Interphase: period from cell formation to cell division, nuclear membrane is intact and distinct
    • G1 = time when cell undergoes rapid growth and carries out normal daily metabolic activity, varies in length of time, as G1 ends centrioles start to replicate
    • S = DNA replicates, new histones are made and assembled into chromatin
    • G2 = period of brief growth, enzymes and other proteins synthesized in preparation for cell division. Centrioles replication completed
  • Mitosis: period of nuclear division, usually takes about 2 hours, consists of four continuous phases

Be able to identify cellular processes that occur during each stage

  • Cytokinesis
    • period of cytoplasmic division, begins in late anaphase or early telophase,
    • cleavage furrow forms and cell membrane constricts where the metaphase plate was previously,
    • cytoplasm is split resulting in two new separate daughter cells