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Anatomical Directions & Movements. Sports Medicine I. Anatomical Position. In this position, the body is erect with feet together and the palms face forward and the thumbs are pointed away from the body. Anatomical Directions.

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anatomical position
Anatomical Position
  • In this position, the body is erect with feet together and the palms face forward and the thumbs are pointed away from the body.
anatomical directions
Anatomical Directions
  • These are used to explain precisely where one body structure is in relation to another.
  • These directional terms refers to an individual’s body as if it were in anatomical position, regardless of its actual position.
anatomical directions1
Anatomical Directions
  • Superior (cranial)
    • Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; Above
anatomical directions2
Anatomical Directions
  • Inferior (caudal)
    • Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; Below
anatomical directions3
Anatomical Directions
  • Anterior (ventral)
    • Toward or at the front of the body; In front of
anatomical directions4
Anatomical Directions
  • Posterior (dorsal)
    • Toward or at the back of the body; Behind
anatomical directions5
Anatomical Directions
  • Medial
    • Toward or at the midline of the body; On the inner side of
anatomical directions6
Anatomical Directions
  • Lateral
    • Away from the midline of the body; On the outer side of
anatomical directions7
Anatomical Directions
  • Proximal
    • Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
anatomical directions8
Anatomical Directions
  • Distal
    • Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
anatomical directions9
Anatomical Directions
  • Superficial
    • Toward or at the body surface
anatomical directions10
Anatomical Directions
  • Deep
    • Away from the body surface; More internal
joint movements
Joint Movements
  • There are 3 general types of movements:
    • Gliding
    • Angular movements
    • Rotation
gliding movements
Gliding Movements
  • They are the simplest type of joint movement.
  • One flat, or nearly flat, bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface.
    • The bones are merely displaced in relation to one another.
gliding movements2
Gliding Movements
  • They occur at the intercarpal (wrist), intertarsal (foot), intervertebral (spine), and sternoclavicular (sternum meets collarbone) joints.
angular movements
Angular Movements
  • These change (increase or decrease) the angle between 2 bones.
  • They include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction & circumduction.
angular movements1
Angular Movements
  • Flexion
    • This is a bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the 2 articulating bones closer together.
    • Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called dorsiflexion.
flexion
Flexion

Hip flexion

Knee flexion

angular movements2
Angular Movements
  • Extension
    • This is the reverse of flexion and occurs at the same joints.
    • It involves movement that increases the angle between the articulating bones.
angular movements3
Angular Movements
  • Bending the head backward beyond the upright position is called hyperextension.
  • In the foot, extension or straightening of the ankle (pointing one’s toes) is referred to as plantar flexion.
angular movements4
Angular Movements
  • Abduction
    • This is movement of a limb away from the midline of the body.
    • When the term is used to indicate the movement of the fingers or toes, it means spreading them apart.
angular movements5
Angular Movements
  • Adduction
    • This is the opposite of abduction, so it is the movement of a limb toward the body midline.
angular movements6
Angular Movements
  • Circumduction
    • This is the movement in which the limb describes a cone in space.
    • A pitcher winding up to throw a ball is actually circumducting his/her pitching arm.
rotation
Rotation
  • This is the turning movement of a bone around its own long axis.
  • It is the only movement allowed between the first 2 cervical vertebrae and is common at the hip and shoulder joints.
special movements
Special Movements
  • Certain movements occur only at specific joints or areas of the body.
  • Supination & pronation refer only to the movements of the radius around the ulna.
special movements1
Special Movements
  • Supination is the movement of the forearm so that the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly.
  • In the anatomical position, the hand is supinated and the radius & ulna are parallel.
  • In pronation, the palm is moved to a posterior- or inferior-facing position.
special movements2
Special Movements
  • Inversion & eversion refer to special movements of the foot.
    • In inversion, the sole of the foot is turned medially.
    • In eversion, the sole faces laterally.
special movements3
Special Movements
  • Protraction & retraction are nonangular anterior and posterior movements.
    • The lower jaw is protracted when you jut it out and retracted when it moves posteriorly & returns to its original position.
special movements4
Special Movements
  • Elevation & depression
    • Elevation means lifting.
    • When the elevated part is moved downward to its original position, the movement is called depression.