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Harlem as a Center of Art and Culture Study Guide for Dance Theatre of Harlem Ensemble Performance. Edward M. Epstein, University of Pennsylvania. Blacks in New York: Colonial Period. Enslaved Africans first arrive in Dutch Colony of New Amsterdam 1625

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harlem as a center of art and culture study guide for dance theatre of harlem ensemble performance

Harlem as a Center of Art and CultureStudy Guide for Dance Theatre of Harlem Ensemble Performance

Edward M. Epstein, University of Pennsylvania

blacks in new york colonial period
Blacks in New York: Colonial Period
  • Enslaved Africans first arrive in Dutch Colony of New Amsterdam 1625
  • Taken by British 1665, renamed New York. Becomes center of British slave trade
  • Slave market established on Wall St., 1711
  • Slave rebellions, 1712, 1741
blacks in new york 1800s
Blacks in New York: 1800s
  • NY passes gradual emancipation act, 1799, abolishes slavery1817
  • Free Blacks subjected to discrimination in voting, housing, worship
  • 1790s-1860s: Black New Yorkers organize their own churches, businesses, newspapers & benevolent societies
  • Progression of Black settlements in New York, leading to Harlem
development of northern manhattan
Development of Northern Manhattan
  • First Dutch settlers arrive 1637; named New Haarlem in 1658 after Dutch city
  • Elevated trains extended to north of city, 1870s-1880s
  • Based on plan for IRT subway line, real estate speculation fuels housing glut
  • African American real estate brokers buy up undervalued property, sell and rent to Blacks
new black self image in the new century
New Black Self-Image in the New Century
  • More assertive attitude by Black troops returning from World War I
  • Garveyite movement
harlem renaissance literature
“New Negro”: Alain Locke, Claude McKay

Poets & Novelists James Weldon Johnson, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston

Harlem Renaissance: Literature
harlem renaissance visual art
Aaron Douglas

Augusta Savage

Harlem Renaissance: Visual Art

Douglas:

Aspiration

Savage:

Lift Every Voice

and Sing

Douglas:

Crisis cover

harlem renaissance jazz
Band leaders Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson

Louis Armstrong joins Henderson’s band, 1924

George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue introduced 1924

Venues: Cotton Club, Apollo Theatre, Savoy Ballroom

Ellington Sound Clips: Caravan, Satin Doll

Harlem Renaissance: Jazz
dance styles lindy hop
Dance Styles: Lindy Hop
  • Popularized at Savoy Ballroom by “Shorty” George Snowden
  • Video: Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers, 1937 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzpVeJodMSo&feature=related
1940s 50s
Harlem Riots, 1943

Downward slide in property values as “White flight” takes hold

1940s & 50s
visual arts picturing harlem
Visual Arts: Picturing Harlem
  • Jacob Lawrence
  • Romare Bearden

Lawrence Interior Scene

Bearden Dove

dance desegregating ballet
Dance: Desegregating Ballet
  • Arthur Mitchell was first African American to dance in George Balanchine’s New York City ballet (1955)
  • Was principal dancer for 15 years
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRZwCmmQVPw&feature=related
background classical ballet
Background: Classical Ballet
  • Pas de deux—Swan Lakehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhnImyhvZKg
  • Feet positionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nFbN5wzywf4
  • Ballet moveshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_MIhxrqBVs
background modern dance
Background: Modern Dance
  • Martha Graham:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pb4-kpClZns&feature=related
background jazz dance
Background: Jazz Dance
  • Evolved from African American popular dance styles:
    • Tap
    • Social dance: Jitterbug, Cakewalk, Lindy Hop
  • 1950s Katherine Dunham develops Modern Jazz dance, adding Carribean, ballet influences
dance theatre of harlem
Dance Theatre of Harlem
  • Mitchell Founded Dance Theatre with Karel Shook in 1969
  • “Open House” series gave community access to dance performances
  • Peformance debut at Guggenheim Museum in 1971
  • Arthur Mitchell co-choreographs Concerto for Jazz Band and Orchestra with George Balanchine of NYC Ballet
  • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FE8JMc90qwc&feature=watch_response
  • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsOBXQV04sk&feature=related
harlem now
Gentrification

Current-day cultural institutions

Schomburg Archive

Studio Museum

Apollo Theater

Abyssinian Baptist Church

Dance Theatre of Harlem

Harlem Now