AIMS OF THE DAY: TO: • Discuss the main features of effective CPD leadership; • Analyse key elements such as needs analysis, evaluating impact, adult learning and dissemination; • Ascertain the nature of support and guidance available; • Consider ways of improving CPD in schools and across the region; • Share expertise and ideas.
WHAT IS CPD? • Is “CPD” the right term? • Is there a difference between inset, training, professional learning, staff development and personal learning? • In what way are the following definitions appropriate or otherwise (Slide 4); • Produce a favoured definition.
CPD: OTHER PEOPLES’ DEFINITIONS “Everything that engages teachers in becoming reflective practitioners (NFER quote); “CPD is any professional development activity for school staff which adds to their professional knowledge, enhances their professional skills and enables pupils to learn more effectively” (DfES). “All formal and informal learning that enables individuals to improve their own practice” (Earley and Bubb)
CPD: OTHER PEOPLES’ DEFINITIONS “CPD embraces those education, training and support activities engaged in by (teachers) following their initial certification which aims to add to their professional knowledge, improve their professional skills, help clarify their professional values and enable pupils to be educated more effectively” (Bolam) “CPD consists of all natural learning experiences and those conscious and planned activities that are intended to be of direct or indirect benefit to the individual, group or school and which contribute, through these to the quality of education in the classroom” (Day)
More laconically: CPD = “Consigning Paper to the Dustbin” CPD = “Being trained” CPD = “A lifelong journey of learning” CPD = “the means to help people succeed and go on succeeding”
A CPD STRATEGY In devising a CPD strategy, what elements/aspects need to be considered, eg. needs identification?
CPD LEADER WEBSITE www.cpdleader.com 6 elements: • Creating the Climate • Leadership • Systems and Processes • Identifying Need • Approaches and Methods • Evaluating Impact
SCHOOLS WORKFORCE (1): • Trainee teachers; • Newly qualified teachers • Early career; • Established teachers; • Specialist area teachers – subjects, groups of pupils, 1:1 tuition; • Supply teachers; • ASTs, excellent and lead teachers;
SCHOOLS WORKFORCE (2): • Middle leaders and managers (teachers and support); • Established leaders; • Aspiring leaders; • New senior leaders; • Experienced senior leaders including executive heads;
SCHOOLS WORKFORCE (3): • Support staff (classroom) – teaching assistants, language assistants, instructors; • Support staff (curriculum support) – librarians, technicians, cover supervisors, after-school support staff, art, sport and culture; • Support staff (behaviour and guidance) – learning mentors, on-site police; • Support staff (administration and organisation) – business managers, ICT systems managers, secretarial and admin staff; • Support staff (well-being) – nurses, health and safety, catering, social workers;
SCHOOLS WORKFORCE (4): • Governors; • Volunteers; • Parents and carers; • Pupils • Are there any other categories? • Which categories receive the best opportunities for CPD development and which the worst?
TALENT MANAGEMENT: Human beings are the best resource. Talent management involves using that “best resource” in the most effective ways. Definitions: “Initiatives and/or strategies put in place to harness the unique talents of individual employees and covert their talent potential into optimal organisational performance” (CiPD).
TALENT MANAGEMENT (2): “Talent management is essentially making sure you have the right person in the right place at the right time. It can be defined as attracting and integrating highly skilled workers and developing and retaining existing workers” (NHS). “The mechanism through which an organisation ensures it has the right people, optimally deployed and properly engaged to deliver the strategy and business results” (Hay). Is this not the role of CPD?
TALENT MANAGEMENT IS ABOUT (1): • Equality of opportunity especially the modest within an institution; • Recognising that everyone has talents that can be used in some contexts; • Recognising that there is no such thing as a super person talented equally across all contexts; • Encouraging people to use their talents; • Ensuring the path so that people can use those talents effectively; • Making sure that the talents are used and appreciated over time;
TALENT MANAGEMENT IS ABOUT (2): • Creating a culture where talent is applauded and celebrated rather than derided; • Ensuring that individuals take a personal responsibility; • Recognising that some failure is a natural part of talent development especially where risks are taken;
TALENT MANAGEMENT IS NOT ABOUT: • Creating a book singling out individuals; • Something focused on stepping up the career ladder – it is much more about promotability rather than promotion; • Keeping files of information based on skills audits; • Imposing a top down system; • A one-size-fits all approach – adaptability is key; • Using people on the cheap; • Just using ones own staff at all costs.
CPD HAS CHANGED IN A NUMBER OF WAYS: • Much was based on addressing the weaknesses or supporting the ambitious; • Teaching staff were often the only beneficiaries; • The approaches were narrow – courses and conferences; • Main providers were local authorities and universities; • Little real accountability; • Very hit and miss if CPD could be accessed – patronage played a part, eg. LEA adviser; • No national or regional support structures such as TDA, National College.
RECENT LEGISLATION AND POLICIES: • April 2010 – right to request time to train • Lib Democrats proposed £500 CPD entitlement a year per teacher; • Abolished limits on class observation; • Expand Teaching Leaders (2-year middle leadership programme for those with 5 years experience – London only at moment); • Teacher training increase in schools; • Loss of support grants, eg. HLTA, Workforce Modernisation Grant; • Cuts across all support agencies including National College, TDA, CWDC • Specialist training programmes so far protected, eg. Maths, SENCOs.
MPs RECOMMENDATIONS (1): Cross-Party Select Committee of MPs (March 2010): • Single national framework; • School based ITT should be 30% • Ofsted top grades require school to be in a training partnership; • Mentors of NQTs should have at least 3 years experience; • Teaching should be all Masters;
MPs RECOMMENDATIONS (2): • CPD should have minimum funding guaranteed and be ring fenced; • Rarely cover reviewed to avoid negative impact on CPD; • Single over-arching “chartered teacher status”; • Supply teachers to receive regular CPD linked to performance reviews; • A centre to provide joint CPD for schools and FE in pedagogy and assessment in vocational education.
DISCUSSION: EFFECTIVE CPD: Identify a type of CPD that has proved: • effective on a personal level; • particularly ineffective and pointless. What were the characteristics and why was it effective or ineffective?
OFSTED ON CPD (1): GOOD PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOLS (March 2010): Strengths: • Often senior managers committed; • Close alignment with PM; • Flexible use of time, resources and expertise; • Successful balancing of individual and institutional needs; • Now more emphasis on whole workforce; • Often how levels of trust to implement change;. • Information from a wide range of sources to identify priorities; • Involve staff closely in identification and implementation; Inclusive;
OFSTED ON CPD (2): GOOD PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOLS: • Good schools identify the intended benefit clearly; • Best schools consider long term planning not just quick fixes; • Judicious use made of ready made training programmes; • Research and development groups used to improve practice; • One school had established a database of 2000 professional development ideas; • Good variety of activities including collaboration between institutions; • Staff discuss and reflect; • Effective use of coaching and mentoring • In half schools visited teachers professional standards used but few were using national occupational standards for the wider workforce
OFSTED: GOOD PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOLS 3 weaknesses: • Evaluating value for money – too much reliance on the anecdotal and subjective impressions; • Refreshing subject knowledge outside English and maths especially in primary schools; • Self-evaluation skills
OFSTED: GOOD PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOLS Key questions: • How well is CPD integrated with school improvement? • How well does the school provide policies and frameworks for staff to secure consistency and quality in work? • How far is staff expertise used? • How well does it monitor and evaluate CPD?
OFSTED: GOOD PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOLS Recommendations for schools: • Most CPD should be school-based and focused on the school’s priorities; • Improve monitoring and evaluating of impact; • Update teachers subject knowledge across the whole curriculum regularly; • Extend understanding and expertise in coaching and mentoring; • Create enough time to undertake CPD and discuss and reflect what they have learnt; • Make use all leaders can evaluate performance accurately and objectively and know how to deal with any shortcomings
OFSTED: WORKFORCE REFORM IN SCHOOLS: HAS IT MADE A DIFFERENCE? (1): Covers 2003-2009. 5th report. In most effective schools, • Staff were well deployed, given professional status and held accountable, eg. helped school improvement planning; • Clear direction needed from school leadership; • All workforce understood their roles and how they contributed to learning and how to make the school more effective; • CPD for the support staff linked to PM • Collaborative planning between teachers and support staff and direct involvement of support staff in assessment;
OFSTED: WORKFORCE REFORM IN SCHOOLS: HAS IT MADE A DIFFERENCE? (2): • High quality intervention from appropriate members of the wider workforce; • Real focus on those at risk of under achievement or exclusion including links with the community; • Good use of resources especially time But need for: • Better knowledge of national occupational standards and career development framework; • Guidance on pay and conditions for the diverse roles; • Analysis of cost effectiveness of workforce reform.
SOME CPD:CHALLENGES FOR CPD (1) • Not ring-fenced; • Budgets have been cut and programmes will need to be costed; • Removal of support, eg. local authorities, HEIs, TDA, National College; • CPD not sufficiently recognised as helping school improvement; • Ofsted have not always evaluated it in school inspections; • Not sufficient benefit in career development; • Teachers too overworked - no significant reduction in the classroom hours of teachers since 2000 – more than 50 hours a week. • Teachers more likely to do unpaid overtime than any other profession
SOME CPD:CHALLENGES FOR CPD (2) • Too much out there, eg. qualifications rose from 2771 in 2001 to 9708 in 2009 with 2600 in the new Qualifications and Credit Framework; • Leaders not always convinced of benefits, eg. MTL; • Impact of some workforce agreements, eg. Rarely Cover; • There is much that is mediocre - latest survey by Cambridge University and OU based on CPD of 1126 teachers - programmes often erratic, EPD teachers less likely to go on courses than older staff; only 6% attended a demonstration lesson or skill in the last year.
HOW GOOD ARE WE? • Does this represent a clear self-evaluation tool? • How could it be improved or developed? • Individually look at where you feel you are at the moment? • Of the different elements which seem the easiest and most difficult to change?
LEARNING ORGANISATIONS • How might we define a learning organisation? • What are the challenges in establishing such a learning organisation? • What steps can be taken to help ensure it happens?
SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING ORGANISATIONS • A vision/strategy for the whole school community on a continuous learning journey; • Recognition that everyone can learn from others; • Pupils very aware that adults are also learning; • Culture of sharing new ideas – including effective dissemination; • Risk taking encouraged with no put downs; • Recognition and celebration of new learning; • Best ideas incorporated by substantiation rather than imposition.
HOW MIGHT CPD BE ORGANISED IN A SCHOOL? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following structures? • a single CPD leader; • leadership distributed across the workforce; • leadership across a network; • no overall CPD leader. Are there any models? What is your favoured approach and why?
THE SKILLS NEEDED TO BE A CPD LEADER. • How many have specific job descriptions/specifications? • What are the characteristics of such a role? • Look at the following set of skills – which are the main ones in being an effective leader? • Are there others?
EVERYONES’ RESPONSIBILITY FOR CPD:What would you expect from: • Senior leadership including governors; • CPD leadership; • Area or subject leaders; • Support staff managers; • The individual. • Which areas need further development in your school? • How far do you agree with Resource Paper 5?
END OF SESSION 1: What are the implications so far for me?
NEEDS ANALYSIS: • How do we currently identify needs? • How secure and comprehensive is it? • How does the information come together and who has access to it? • What are the most effective ways of gathering information?
NEEDS ANALYSES: • Cover long and short term, innovation, maintenance and sustainability; • Needs a feedback mechanism from all sections of the school; • Cover well-being and pastoral as well as standards; • Access needed to SEF, improvement plans etc; • Needs a range of evidence; • Include informal as well as formal mechanisms but avoid bureaucracy; • Needs should include how as well as what; • Needs a calendar as to when this all happens; • Needs a mechanism for deciding priorities.
NEEDS ANALYSIS – FORMAL • Performance data; • SEF; • SIP feedback; • Performance management information; • School improvement plan; • Work scrutiny; • External evaluation – Ofsted, reviews etc.
NEEDS ANALYSIS - INFORMAL • Informal discussions with staff, children, parents and community; • Discussions at staff or area/subject meetings; • Skills audits; • Discussions at training including evaluations; • Data regarding recruitment, turnover, absence, morale; • Learning journals; • Complaints and praise information; • Walk the walk; • Informal discussions with visitors, eg. partner schools, ASTs; • Questionnaires.
CPD AUDITS Discuss some aspects as to how CPD audits might be done, ie. • what information; • who does it; • when is it done; • how is it collated; • how this feeds into a delivery and evaluation programme?
MONITORING IMPACT: • Weak element according to Ofsted especially in terms of value for money; • Main methods are evaluation forms, reports and feedback; • Few schools have success criteria; • Research shows establishing a causal link is very difficult; • New recommendations are appearing – Alma Harris, Chris Day et al; • Usually missing is long term impact; • CUREE indicates the key impact is changed behaviours; • Crucial is the embedding and assimilation not the parroting; • Use creative and non-bolt on methods; • Heed the dissemination aspect.