echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis l.
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Echinococcus granulosus (and multilocularis ) . Cassandra Gallati Rachel Harjes Heather Hutchings. What is it?. Human Echinococcosis is caused by the larval stages of cestodes (tapeworms) of the genus Echinococcus Both have 3 proglottids , hooks and suckers E. granulosus

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echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis

Echinococcusgranulosus(and multilocularis)

Cassandra Gallati

Rachel Harjes

Heather Hutchings

what is it
What is it?
  • Human Echinococcosis is caused by the larval stages of cestodes (tapeworms) of the genus Echinococcus
  • Both have 3 proglottids, hooks and suckers
  • E. granulosus
    • Causes cystic Echinococcosis
    • This form is most frequently encountered
    • 3 mm-6 mm long
    • Rostellum contains 28-50 hooks
  • E. multilocularis
    • Causes alveolar Echinococcosis
      • Looks like little alveoli
      • Can travel to any part of the body
    • 1.2 mm-3.7 mm long
definitive host intermediate host
Definitive Host/Intermediate Host:
  • Echinococcusgranulosus:
    • Definitive Host: dogs and other carnivores
    • Intermediate Host: mammals, including humans or herbivorous species
  • Echinococcusmultilocularis:
    • Definitive Host: mainly foxes but dogs, cats, coyotes and wolves also
    • Intermediate Host: small rodents, rarely humans
geographic distribution
Geographic Distribution:
  • E. granulosus
    • Worldwide
    • More frequent in rural, sheep raising areas
  • E. multilocularis
    • Occurs in northern hemisphere
    • This includes central and northern Europe, Asia, and North America
      • Most frequently found in northern states
life cycle steps
Life Cycle Steps:

1. The adult Echinococcus granulosus resides in the small bowel of the definitive hosts, dogs or other canids. 

2. Gravid proglottids release eggs that are passed in the feces.

3. The eggs are ingested by an intermediate host

4. The egg hatches in the small bowel

5. The egg releases an oncosphere that penetrates the intestinal wall

6. The oncosphere migrates through the circulatory system into various organs, especially the liver and lungs. 

7. In the liver or lungs, the oncosphere develops into an infective hydatid cyst in the tissue of the tissue of what definitive host eats.

8. The hydatid cyst enlarges gradually

9. The hydatid cyst produces protoscolices and daughter cysts that fill the cyst interior. 

10. After ingestion by the definitive host, the protoscolices evaginate.

11. The protoscolices then attach to the intestinal mucosa

12. The protoscolices then develop into adult stages in 32 to 80 days.

symptoms
Symptoms:
  • E. granulosus
    • Can remain silent for years
    • It is the enlarging cysts that cause symptoms in organs
      • Hepatic involvement (abdominal pain, mass in the hepatic area, biliary duct obstruction)
      • Pulmonary involvement (chest pain, Cough, hemoptysis)
      • Brain, bone, and heart
    • Rupture of cyst (fever, hives, pus, anaphylactic shock, and the cyst spreads throughout body cavity)
  • E. multilocularis
    • Affects the liver as a slow growing destructive tumor
    • Abdominal pain, biliary obstruction, and sometimes metastatic lesions in lungs and brain are common symptoms
    • Causes alveolar echinococcosis
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Imagery
    • Hydatids are found during X-radiography, ultrasonography, CAT scans
  • Immunodiagnostic techniques
    • Generally less sensitive then imagery
  • Microscopy
    • Fluid aspirated from hydatid cyst will show many protoscolices
treatment
Treatment
  • Most effective and common type of treatment is surgery to remove the parasite mass

http://youtube.com/watch?v=E9Hx9oKkEVg

  • Medication after surgery may be necessary to keep the cyst from recurring
    • Drug of choice is albendazole for E. granulosus
    • Drug of choice is albendazole and mebendazole for E. multilocularis
control methods
Control Methods:
  • Interrupt lifecycle by denying access of dogs to offal
  • Destroy stray dogs
  • General education program
  • Sheep herders should not live closely with their dogs
interesting fact
Interesting fact
  • The drug that is so effective for most flatworm parasites, Praziquantel, may actually enhance growth of alveolar hydatids.
sources
Sources
  • Center of Disease Control
  • Foundation of Parasitology (textbook)
  • Compendium of Cystic Echinococcosis (from Professor Bates)