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DNA Transcription & Protein Translation. Honors Biology SOL.BIO.6f. Today’s Objectives. TSW investigate and understand common mechanisms of protein synthesis. DNA Transcription. DNA must be copied to messenger RNA (mRNA) mRNA goes from nucleus to the ribosomes in cytoplasm

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Presentation Transcript
today s objectives
Today’s Objectives
  • TSW investigate and understand common mechanisms of protein synthesis.
dna transcription
DNA Transcription
  • DNA must be copied to messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • mRNA goes from nucleus to the ribosomes in cytoplasm
  • mRNA complements known as codons
    • Only 3 nucleotide “letters” long
  • Remember RNA has uracil (U) instead of thymine (T)!
transcription step i

A C G T A T C G C G T A

T G C A T A G C G C A T

Transcription – Step I

Template DNA Strands

transcription step ii

A C G T A T C G C G T A

U G C A U A G C G C A U

Transcription – Step II

Template DNA is Matched Up with Complementary mRNA Sequences

transcription step iii

A C G U A U C G C G U A

U G C A U A G C G C A U

Transcription – Step III

mRNA leaves nucleus and goes to ribosomes

A new complementary RNA strand is made (rRNA)

transcription reminders
Transcription Reminders
  • The template strand is the DNA strand being copied
  • The rRNA strand is the same as the DNA strand except Us have replaced Ts
protein translation
Protein Translation
  • Modified genetic code is “translated” into proteins
  • Codon code is specific, but redundant!
    • 20 amino acids
    • 64 triplet (codon) combinations
trna structure
tRNA structure
  • 3-base code (triplet) is an “anticodon”
  • Protein molecule
  • Attached amino acid that is carried from cytoplasm to ribosomes
protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis
  • Start: Ribosome binds to mRNA at start codon (AUG)
  • Elongation:
    • tRNA complexes bind to mRNA codon by forming complementary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon
    • The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA.
    • Amino acids are added one by one
  • Release: release factor binds to the stop codon