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The Age of American Imperialism. Imperialism 101. Motives behind imperialism: Economic Military Philosophical Manifest Destiny, Part II Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism Missionary impulse - “The White Man’s Burden” – Rudyard Kipling. The Imperialist Chorus.

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imperialism 101
Imperialism 101
  • Motives behind imperialism:
    • Economic
    • Military
    • Philosophical
      • Manifest Destiny, Part II
      • Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism
      • Missionary impulse -
      • “The White Man’s Burden” – Rudyard Kipling
the imperialist chorus
The Imperialist Chorus
  • Josiah Strong – Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis (1885)
      • Anglo-Saxon people are the “fittest to survive”
      • Protestant Americans have a duty to colonize other lands to spread Christianity and the benefits of “superior” civilization
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Seapower Upon History (1890)
      • A strong navy is essential to securing foreign markets and becoming a world power
      • Thesis used to argue for construction of a modern (steel/coal) navy, acquisition of overseas islands, and construction of a canal across Latin America.
  • Albert Beveridge: The Beveridge Report
      • “American factories are making more than the American people can use; American soil is producing more than they can consume. Fate has written our policy for us; the trade of the world must and shall be ours.”
american imperialism
American imperialism
  • US naval build-up – The Great White Fleet
  • Hawaii, 1890s
    • America’s relationship with Hawaii – protectorate, trading partner, military base
    • The sugar interest: The McKinley Tariff, 1890 raises sugar prices.
    • Queen Liliuokalani and the planter revolt
      • Samuel Dole
    • Grover Cleveland refuses annexation
    • President McKinley annexes in 1898.
the spanish american war
The Spanish-American War
  • Causes
  • Cuban Rebellion, 1895
    • Jose Marti – Cuba Libre!
    • Scorched earth policy and US property interests
      • $50 million year invested/$100 million year trade
    • General Valeriano Weyler
      • Reconcentration policy
      • Atrocity stories abound
the spanish american war con t
The Spanish-American War (con’t)
  • Causes – Con’t
  • DeLome Letter
    • Dupuy de Lome -- Spanish ambassador
    • Calls McKinley “weak” and a “bidder for the attention of the public”
    • Published in Yellow Press
  • The Maine Explosion (Feb. 15, 1898)
    • Occurs one week after the release of the DeLome letter
    • “Remember the Maine”
    • 260 killed
yellow journalism and the war
Yellow Journalism and the War
  • William Randolph Hearst: New York Journal
    • Frederick Remington: "There is no war. Request to be recalled.”
    • Hearst: "Please remain. You furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war."
  • Joseph Pulitzer: New York World
mckinley s war message
McKinley’s War Message
  • After the sinking of the Maine…
    • Demands a cease fire from Spain
    • Public pressure continues…
mckinley s war message17
McKinley’s War Message
  • April, delivers war message
  • Promises to:
    • “Put an end to the barbarities, bloodshed, starvation, and horrible miseries” in Cuba
    • Protect the lives and property of US citizens in Cuba
    • End “the very serious injury to the commerce, trade, and business of our people.”
    • End “the constant menace to our peace” arising from disorders in Cuba.
  • April 20 – Congress declares war, along with the Teller Amendment
    • Teller Amendment: US is fighting for Cuban independence; does not intend to make Cuba a territory.
the sp am war
The Sp-Am War
  • The “Splendid Little War”
  • War begins in the Phillipines with the defeat of the Spanish fleet
    • Admiral George Dewey
    • Spain loses all its ships and 381 men; the US loses 1 (died of a heat prostration)
    • America troops would invade the Phillipines with the help of a Filipino nationalist, Emilio Aguinaldo
The War in Cuba
    • Problems: logistics, supplies, uniforms
    • Rough Riders
      • Theodore Roosevelt
      • San Juan Hill
treaty of paris 1898
Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • Ratified in 1899, provides for:
      • Cuban Independence recognized
      • US gains two Spanish islands
        • Puerto Rico (Caribbean)
        • Guam (Pacific)
      • Philippines bought for $20 million
        • Debate between the imperialists and anti-imperialists in the US
        • Anti-imperialism and isolationism: fear of entanglement in Asian conflicts.
  • W McK’s justification for taking the Philippines:
    • Christianity
    • Democracy
    • Manliness v. cowardice
the philippine american war
The Philippine-American War
  • Guerilla war
  • Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Atrocities (water torture, attacks on women and children) reported on both sides
  • Racial dimensions of the conflict:

“This country won’t be pacified until the niggers are killed of like the Indians” - Kansas infantryman

  • Larger conflict than the Sp-Am War
      • 70,000 US soldiers stationed
      • $400 million spent
      • 10,00z 0 US casualities
      • 16,000 Filipino casualties
      • 200,000 civilian deaths.
making sense of the american empire
Making Sense of the American Empire
  • Insular Cases (1901-1903)
    • A series of Supreme Court cases addressing the question: “Does the Constitution follow the flag?”
    • Court rules that constitutional rights are not automatically extended to territorial possessions; Congress has the power to decided whether or not to grant such rights.
making sense of the american empire27
Making Sense of the American Empire
  • Platt Amendment (1901)
    • US troops remain in Cuba from 1898-1901
    • Withdrawal of troops conditioned upon Cuba’s acceptance of the Platt Amendment:
      • No foreign treaties that impair independence (except this one, of course!)
      • US is allowed to intervene in Cuba’s affairs to preserve Cuban independence and maintain law and order
      • US may maintain naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
    • Overall: US oversight and control
    • Amendment is bitterly resented by Cuban nationalists
foreign policy the new american empire
Foreign Policy & the New American Empire
  • Asia:
    • The Open Door Policy (1899)
      • John Hay
      • “sick man of Asia” and “spheres of influence”
      • Open Door note neither accepted nor rejected by European powers
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
    • Society of Harmonious Fists, aka Boxers
    • Nationalism and xenophobia on the rise
    • Attacks on Christian missionaries and foreign settlements.
    • International force sent in (inc. Ams) to crush it.
  • Prompts a second round of “Open Door” notes from Hay calling for powers not to use the rebellion as an excuse to gain more territory.
asia con t
Asia (con’t)
  • Japan
    • Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
      • Imperialist rivalry between Japan and Russia breaks out into war
      • TR arranges the Portsmouth Conference (1905) to settle dispute
      • Japanese feel betrayed after failing to gain Sakhalin Island
    • Gentlemen’s Agreement (1908)
      • Japan upset by California laws preventing Japanese children from attending public schools
      • Compromise calls for Japan restricting emigration in return for TR persuading California to repeal laws.
    • Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)
      • Important agreement that pledges: a) respect for each others territories, and b) to support the “open door” in China.
theodore roosevelt s big stick policy
Theodore Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Policy
  • 1901, TR becomes Pres after McKinley is assassinated in Buffalo, NY
  • TR declares his philosophy of foreign policy: “talk softly, and carry a big stick”
the big stick in the americas
The Big Stick in the Americas
  • Panama Canal
    • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
      • US gets okay from Britain to “go it alone”
    • The Nicaragua v. Panama debate
    • Colombian control of Panama; resistance
    • The Panamanian Revolution (1903)
      • Banau-Varilla
      • Hay-Banau-Varilla Treaty (1903)
      • Colombia compensated for $25 million in 1921
Panama Canal (cont’)
    • Construction of the Canal:
      • “A man, a plan, a canal: Panama”
      • Dr. William Gorgas: eradication mosquitos and yellow fever
Venezuela (1901)
    • US forces sent in by TR to force it to pay debts to European creditors
  • Santo Domingo (1904)
    • US sends troops in to occupy ports, collect taxes, and oversee debt repayment
    • Done to prevent European powers from doing the same thing
    • Policy is called the “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine: US may intervene to prevent others from doing so…