The Age of Imperialism Modern World History – Unit 2
The Industrial Revolution: Beginnings • A dramatic shift from an economy based upon agriculture to one of manufacturing • Began in Great Britain during the 1780s • Took decades to spread across Europe • Many factors made G.B. home of industry • New farming practices led to higher yields • More food caused a population boom • Wealthy had supply of capital to invest • Britain held the natural resources for industry • Colonial empire served as markets for goods • Innovations in textiles spawn first machines • Cottage industry: making by hand in home • Sped up by spinning jenny & flying shuttle • 1787: Loom now powered by water frame • This created the world’s first factories • Watt’s steam engine brought power to cities • Textiles quickly became Britain’s #1 export • G.B. now able to far out-produce rest of world The first factories were powered by the water frame (above) drawing energy from the current of a river. The steam engine (below) provided a portable source of power.
New Industries Spread Across Globe • Steam engine crucial to industrial growth • Coal in high demand as engine’s fuel • Coal mining operations expanded greatly • Iron used to make stronger steam engines • Better quality iron through puddling process • Railroads became main mode of transport • Iron steam engine on iron wheels, pulling carts made of iron on rails made of iron • Railroad lines began to crisscross countryside • Industrial economy spread to Europe, US • Factories built in Belgium, Germany, France • Aided by governments encouraging industry • Provided funds for infrastructure (rails, canals) • Flourishing United States Welcomed Industry • Strong agricultural economy introduced manufacturing mostly in Northern states • Plentiful natural resources (Thanks, Napoleon!) • Railroads, steamboats connect large nation • Industrial Divide: dramatic differences in industrialized vs. non-industrialized nations
Social Impact of Industrial Economy • Factory work led to new social classes • Industrial working class: men, women, and children without property who sold their labor to factory owner in return for wage • Long hours, low wages, unsafe conditions • Competition amongst workers lower wages • Industrial middle class: owners of the means of production (machines) profit from their investments and the labor of their workers • Middle class only if they were not from aristocratic households, though many were • Industrialization spawned urbanization [>] • Population shifted from country to cities • Mechanized farming displaced many poor • Farming machines did the work of many men • Women’s cottage industry no longer profitable • Tenements built to house many poor families • Lack of transportation led to overcrowding, lack of sanitation to led disease and death • Immigrants arrived looking for opportunity Tenement neighborhood of London featuring open sewer drain (a luxury at the time, though many landlords refused to pay have them emptied)
A Look at Rival Economic Philosophies • Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations • Every man is rational & competes for wealth • Every man is first and foremost self-interested • He who is wise in investing his capital (money, labor, wisdom) shall be rewarded with gain • Competition creates hard-work, innovations • “Invisible Hand” of Free-Market Capitalism • Selfish motivations are for the good of society • Laws of supply & demand rule the free market • Gov’t interference poisons/restricts progress • Marx & Engels’ Communist Manifesto • Every man is naturally industrious, our work defines us & divides societies into classes • Bourgeois: own means of production (haves) • Proletariat: sell labor to bourgeois (have-nots) • Capitalism was doomed to fail, be replaced • Social & economic “alienation” of proletariat • “Class consciousness” leads to revolution • Socialism (dictatorship of Proletariat) leads to Communism (stateless, classless society) Economic philosophers Adam Smith (above) and Karl Marx (below) penned two key economic doctrines clashing over private property & control of the means of production.
Forces of Change Transform Europe • Conservatism Sought to Maintain Tradition • Congress of Vienna: meeting of monarchs after defeat of Napoleon, re-drew kingdoms to balance power within Europe • Saw French Revolution as proof of the failure of Enlightenment ideals (liberty/democracy) • Liberalism Challenged Traditional Society • Sought for people to be free as possible • Differed greatly on the definition of citizen • Nobility? Property owners? All men? Everyone? • New social classes (industrial middle & working classes) further complicated the issue • Nationalism: A Gov’t of MY People • Nation: group w/ common culture, heritage • One’s chief political loyalty to their nation • Motivated two key European unifications • Germany: Prussian state unites all Germans • Italy: Nationalistic revolts create unified state • New nation-states shift balance of power • Some nations fought to free themselves from outside control, establish self-rule
Industry Creates New Age Of Imperialism • 19th century Europeans began to view others nations as sources of raw materials • Influence of industrial capitalism principles • Manufactured goods traded for resources • Imperialism: the extension of a nation’s economic/political power over other lands • Motivations behind European Imperialism • Capitalists driven to control others by profit • Greater control over raw materials & markets • European rivals used colonies as leverage • Colonies were viewed as sources of pride & symbols of national strength & dominance • Social Darwinism and Racist Attitudes • Social Darwinists believed that “survival of the fittest” culture was to the benefit of mankind • Racist attitudes (believe in the superiority of certain races) were common within Europe • Humanitarian approach to Imperialism • “White Man’s Burden” to civilize & Christianize the “savage” people of the world Great Britain built a global empire (below) based on motivations for profit and often racist attitudes (above).
Berlin Conference: The Race for Africa • Early European interest limited to coast • Trading ports est. during Age of Ex. • Very little known of African interior • Work of Livingstone, Stanley shed light • Abundance of natural resources (rubber, ivory, diamonds), lack of political & military strength in many cases • The Race for Africa • King Leopold II of Belgium’s Congo • Established nations moved in from coast • New nations (?) quick to follow example • Bismarck of Germany concerned about conflict among European nations • Berlin Conference (1884) establishes colonial boundaries, ground rules for exploitation • Only Liberia & Ethiopia remain free • Characteristics of Imperialistic Rule: • Direct Rule: replace existing government • Indirect Rule: control existing government This cartoon depicts British businessman & politician Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes lead the cries for British imperialism in Africa and made a fortune building diamond mines in what is today Zimbabwe.
Raj: British Imperialist Rule in India • British traders challenged Mogul Dynasty • Forts built to protect European interests • Britain limited French trade, empowered East India Company authority to act on its behalf • Sir Robert Clive built army to destroy any threat to East India Company’s power in India • Collecting taxes became EIC’s major income • Sepoy Mutiny caused British Parliament to hand power from EIC to Queen Victoria • Indian troops turned on British officers, Brits crushed rebellion, both sides commit atrocities • Victoria created post of viceroy to govern India directly • Benefits of “Raj” (British Rule) • Order & stability, education (only for elite), increased technology, infrastructure • Costs of Raj • Economic hardship, hunger for most, degrading treatment by British The most known symbol of the Mogul Dynasty is the TajMahal (below). Above is the flag of the British East India Company.
Imperialist Policies in the Far East • China’s Opium War (1839) • British traders restricted to single port • Huge British demand for tea leads to debt to China (paid in silver) • Brits begin importing Opium into China • Highly addictive illegal drug from India • Addiction leads to profit (paid in silver) • War breaks out, China falls to Britain • Opens door for Western Influences • China falls into political, social chaos • End to Isolation in Japan (1853) • US Commodore Perry: Gunboat Diplomacy • Veiled threat to Japan: trade or be colonized • Began massive push to modernize Japan... • Meiji Restoration aimed to strengthen Japan • Led by new Emperor Mutsuhito • Federalized, organized Japan’s government • Big emphasis on industrialization & imperialism This cartoon depicts the global interest in gaining control of a share of the Chinese economy as well as the general racism of the era.