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The Age of Imperialism. Chapter 11 1850-1914. What is imperialism?. The seizure (takeover) of a country or territory by a stronger country. What is Imperialism?. Why do Europeans do this? Industrialization sparks the need for: Land perfect for establishing trading and military posts

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the age of imperialism

The Age of Imperialism

Chapter 11


what is imperialism
What is imperialism?
  • The seizure (takeover) of a country or territory by a stronger country
what is imperialism3
What is Imperialism?
  • Why do Europeans do this?
    • Industrialization sparks the need for:
      • Land perfect for establishing trading and military posts
      • Natural resources and raw materials
      • New markets for products
what is imperialism4
What is Imperialism?
  • Europeans want to control all aspects of their colonies
    • Politics
    • Society
    • Economy
    • Culture and customs
types of imperialism
Types of Imperialism
  • Methods of Management
    • Direct Control
      • Paternalism – Europeans provide for local people but grant no rights
      • Assimilation – adaptation of local people to ruling culture
    • Indirect Control
      • Limited self-rule for local governments
      • Legislative body includes colonial & local officials
types of imperialism6
Types of Imperialism
  • Forms of Control
    • Colony
      • Governed by a foreign power
    • Protectorate
      • Governs itself, but under outside control
    • Sphere of Influence
      • Outside power controls investments & trading
    • Economic Imperialism
      • Private business interests assert control
i the scramble for africa
I. The Scramble for Africa
  • Africa Before European Dominion
    • Divided into hundreds of ethnic groups
    • Followed traditional beliefs, Islam or Christianity
    • Nations ranged from large empires to independent villages
    • Africans controlled their own trade networks
    • Europeans only had contact on African coasts
the scramble for africa cont
The Scramble for Africa (cont)
  • Nations compete for overseas empires
    • Europeans wanted more land
      • Contained large amounts of gold, diamonds, and rubber
    • Africa was a mystery to many
    • Europeans who penetrated Africa were:
      • Explorers – seeking wealth and notoriety
      • Missionaries – trying to convert Africans to Christianity
      • Humanitarians – “westernize” the “savages”
the scramble for africa cont9
The Scramble for Africa (cont)
  • Forces Driving Imperialism
    • Belief in European superiority
      • Racism
      • Social Darwinism
    • Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa
      • European technological superiority
      • Europeans had means to control
      • New medicines prevent diseases
the division of africa
The Division of Africa
  • The Berlin Conference (1884)
    • Europeans leaders divide Africa
    • No African ruler invited
    • Little or no thought about the complex differences in ethnic groups
    • By 1914 – Only independent nations
      • Liberia
      • Ethiopia

According to this cartoon, which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa?

How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown in the cartoon?

south africa
South Africa
  • Three Groups Clash for Power
    • Africans
      • Zulu nation, led by Shaka, fought the British
      • Zulu nation lost to British in 1887
    • Boers
      • Dutch settlers that had controlled South Africa since the mid 1600s
      • Also known as Afrikaners
    • British
      • Gained control of South Africa after the Berlin Conference
boer war
Boer War
  • Fought between the Boers and the British
    • Many Africans fought with the Boers
    • First example of “total war”
    • British win in 1910
      • Established the Union of South Africa (British Rule)

Effects of



in Africa

ii case study nigeria
II. Case Study: Nigeria
  • Britain’s control of Nigeria
    • Britain takes control by diplomacy & force
      • All of Nigeria claimed as a colony in 1914
  • Nigeria very culturally diverse
    • 250 ethnic groups
  • British utilize indirect rule
    • Local chiefs resent limits on their rule
african resistance
African Resistance
  • Africans Confront Imperialism
    • Broad resistance, but Europeans have superior weapons
  • Unsuccessful Movements
    • Algeria fights the French for 50 years
    • German East Africa resistance results in 75,000 deaths
  • Successful Movements
    • Ethiopia under Emperor Menelik II
    • Plays Europeans against each other
    • Stockpiles modern weapons
    • Defeats Italy and remains independent
legacy of imperialism
Legacy of Imperialism
  • Negative Effects
    • Africans lose land and independence
    • Many lives are lost
    • Traditional cultures breakdown
    • Division of Africa creates problems that continue today
  • Positive Effects
    • Reduces local fighting
    • Sanitation improves
    • Hospitals and schools created
    • Technology brings economic growth
iii europeans claim muslim lands
III. Europeans Claim Muslim Lands
  • The Ottoman Empire Loses Power
    • Empire begins to decline in 1566
      • Death of Suleyman I
    • Modernization movements are unsuccessful
    • Greece and Serbia gain independence
    • European Powers look to gain Ottoman lands


of the

Ottoman Empire

crimean war 1853
Crimean War (1853)
  • Crimean War – Russia vs. Ottoman Empire
    • Russia seeks Ottoman land
      • Access to a warm-water port
    • Russia loses war
      • Ottomans are shown to be weak
      • Russia still is able to take land
europeans grab territory
Europeans Grab Territory
  • England gains control of:
    • India – natural resources
    • Suez Canal – international trade
    • Persia – oil and tobacco
  • Russia gains control of:
    • Persia – oil, tobacco, & access to Indian Ocean
    • Afghanistan – oil


Suez Canal

iv british imperialism in india
IV. British Imperialism in India
  • British Expand Control over India
    • East India Company
      • Controls India thru economic imperialism
      • Company uses an army including Indian soldiers known as “sepoys”
    • India was seen as the most important colony
      • Due to its production of raw materials
      • Known as the “Jewel in the Crown”
effects of british rule
Effects of British Rule
  • Impact of Colonialism
    • Railroads move cash crops and goods faster
    • British control political and economic power
    • Cash crops resulted in loss of self-sufficiency and caused famine
    • Indian culture is disrupted due to racism and missionaries
    • Britain sought to “modernize” India
the sepoy rebellion
The Sepoy Rebellion
  • Indians Rebel
    • Sepoys refuse to use cartridges due to religious reasons
      • They had to bite them open – greased with pork fat
      • Considered unclean by Muslims
    • Many sepoys were jailed, others rebelled
    • British put down the rebellion
  • Results
    • Britain takes direct control of India
    • Increased distrust between Indians and British
nationalism in india
Nationalism in India
  • Call for reforms
    • India adopts modernization movements
    • Many Indians adopt western ways
  • Religious Issues Remain
    • Formation of the Indian National Congress (1885)
      • Called for independence from Britain
    • Formation of the Muslim League (1906)
      • Many Muslims did not trust Hindus within India
imperialism in southeast asia
Imperialism in Southeast Asia
  • European Powers Invade the “Pacific Rim”
    • Lands of Southeast Asia that border the Pacific Ocean
      • Britain – Malaysia, Burmia, and Singapore
      • Netherlands – Indonesia
      • France – Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)
  • Why?
    • Land perfect for establishing trading and military posts
    • Excellent for plantation agriculture
imperialism in southeast asia29
Imperialism in Southeast Asia
  • Results
    • Modernization helps the European businesses
    • Education, health, and sanitation improves
    • Millions migrate to find work
    • Racial and religious clashes increase




v imperialism in china and japan
V. Imperialism in China and Japan
  • China vs. The West
    • China was self-sufficient – no need for trade
    • China kept a favorable balance of trade
    • Europeans were able to shift the balance
      • Sale of Opium – addictive drug from poppy plant
  • Opium War (1839-1842)– China vs. Britain
    • China loses – signs Treaty of Nanjing
      • Extraterritoriality – foreigners were not subject to Chinese laws
      • Chinese power over the West ends
china vs the west
China vs. The West
  • Foreign Influence Grows
    • Growing Spheres of Influence
  • A Surge in Chinese Nationalism
    • Boxer Rebellion
      • Poor peasants and workers who resented foreign priviledge
    • Beginnings of Reform
      • China tried to become more western
      • Further added to internal problems


in China

imperialism in japan
Imperialism in Japan
  • Japan remained isolated from western world for centuries – only traded mainly with China
    • Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) – ends Japan’s isolation
    • Meiji Reform – Japan begins to modernize beginning in 1867
    • Japan was competitive with the west in many modern industries
imperialism in japan36
Imperialism in Japan
  • Russo-Japanese War (1904)
    • Treaty of Portsmouth
      • Japan gained Russian territory
      • Russia forced out of Korea
  • Japan Controls Korea
    • Takes control of the peninsula in 1910
    • Begins a period of extreme oppression