THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM. Essential Question : What is imperialism and what factors led to the rise of imperialism?. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain’s ________ industry. . textile iron railroad steel. #1.
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What is imperialism and what factors led to the rise of imperialism?
IMPERIALISMis the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country. The stronger country dominates weaker countries politically, economically, and socially. The reason: the stronger country gains power with the money it makes from using the weaker country.
From 1850 to 1914, the strong, industrialized nations of Europe used imperialismto seize colonies; they dominated the local governments and economies in Africa and Asia
Nationalism in Europe meant that each nation wanted to become the most powerful
Having a lot of overseas colonies showed power
This turned into an all-out race for the best and most numerous colonies in Africa and Asia
The Industrial Revolutionled to a huge demand for raw materials so countries could make more factory-produced goods
The Industrial Revolution caused a huge demand for new overseas markets to sell their finished goods
Having numerous colonies in Africa and Asia helped fuel the Industrial Revolution
Christian missionaries wanted to convert the “uncivilized” natives in the world by creating churches, schools, and hospitals
Europeans believed in an idea called “Social Darwinism” that argued that Whites were the most evolved and superior race
Europeans believed in the “White Man’s Burden”: that they had a responsibility to civilize the world
SPHERE OF INFLUENCE: Nations gain exclusive trading rights in territory, dominate all trade, but allow the local government to make other decisionsForms of Imperialism
COLONY: Europeans seize a territory and rule it directly by sending governors to the colony
PROTECTORATE: Local government exists, but Europeans make all real decisions in order to protect their trade
SOCIAL DARWINISM: The Roots of European Racism
Charles Darwin: “survival of the fittest”
Darwin was talking about nature, but people tried to apply his ideas to economics and politics
This was known as “Social Darwinism”
SOCIAL DARWINISM: The Roots of European Racism
Social Darwinism is a social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background
To Europeans, this justified their imperialism in Asia and Africa
Following the Industrial Revolution, Europeans regarded their new technology (weaponry, telegraphs, railroads, etc.) as PROOF that they were BETTER than other peoples
This attitude is a reflection of racism, the belief that one race is superior to others
Europeans believed that they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other “inferior” and “uncivilized” countries
"White Man's Burden": racist patronizing that preached that “superior” Westernershad anobligationto bring their culture to“uncivilized”people in other parts of the world
English writer Rudyard Kipling, in this 1899 poem, summarizes his view of the duties of imperial nations…
“Take up the White Man's burden.Send forth the best you breed.Go bind your sons to exile,To serve their captives' need.To wait, with patience mighty,On folk, ragged and wild:Your new-caught, depraved peoples,Half devil and half child.”
The “White Man’s Burden” appeared in advertisements and even in children’s books of the time period.
This ad says that to “brighten the dark corners of the earth”, the Europeans must teach Africans and Asians to use soap.
This British businessman would make huge profits from Africa’s natural resources.
This became a common sight in Africa and Asia: Europeans using their superior military technology to imperialize
Imperialist nations embraced Social Darwinism in the mid-1800s, including Germany
Many years later, Social Darwinism in Germany will lead to a great deal of death and destruction, when this theory is used by lesser men…
Some of the reasons for the expansion of the European way of life came from missionaries
One of the most famous of these missionaries was Dr. David Livingstone, a minister from Scotland who went to Africa to preach the Gospel and helped to end the slave trade
In the 1800s, Europeans and Americans were eager to read about adventures in distant places, like Africa and Asia
Newspapers competed for readers by hiring reporters to search the globe for stories
One of the most famous reporters at the time was Henry Stanley
Livingstone had traveled deep into the heart of Africa and had not been heard from in years
Livingstone was feared to be dead
Stanley was hired in 1871 to find David Livingstone and write about his search
Ten months later, Stanley caught up with Livingstone
Stanley’s story made him a celebrity; Stanley then set out to explore Africa himself
Stanley’s work was noticed by powerful people…
King Leopold II of Belgium hired Stanley to sign treaties with local chiefs in the Congo River Valley
This began European imperialism in Africa
By 1914, only two African nations remained independent
Economic motives included the desire to make money, to expand and control foreign trade, to create newmarkets for products, to acquire raw materials and cheap labor, and to export industrial technology and transportation methods
Political motives were based on a nation’s desire to gain power, to compete with other European countries, to expand territory, to exercise military force, to gain prestige by winning colonies, and to boost national pride
Religious motives included the desire to spread Christianity, to protect European missionaries in other lands, to spread European values and moral beliefs, to educate peoples of other cultures, and to end the slave trade in Africa
#4: SOCIAL (IDEOLOGICAL)
Social (or ideological) motives were based on the belief that the white race was superior, other cultures were “primitive,” Europeans should “civilize” other peoples, great nations should have empires, and only the strongest nationssurvive
Exploratory motives were based on a desire to explore “unknown” or uncharted territories, to conduct scientific research, to conduct medical searches for the causes and treatment of diseases, to go on an adventure, and investigate unknown cultures
Revamped and redone by Christopher Jaskowiak
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