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PHONETICS See also “Phonology,” “Spelling” & “Writing Systems”. by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen. The Tongue: Our Strongest Muscle. ARTICULATORY PHONETICS (Callary 120). PLACE OF ARTICULATION. BILABIALS LABIO-DENTALS INTERDENTALS ALVEOLARS PALATALS VELARS

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phonetics see also phonology spelling writing systems

PHONETICSSee also “Phonology,” “Spelling”& “Writing Systems”

by Don L. F. Nilsen

and Alleen Pace Nilsen

35

place of articulation
PLACE OF ARTICULATION

BILABIALS

LABIO-DENTALS

INTERDENTALS

ALVEOLARS

PALATALS

VELARS

(Fromkin, Roldman & Hyams [2011] 245 & inside of back cover)

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manner of articulation
MANNER OF ARTICULATION

STOPS

FRICATIVES

AFFRICATES

NASALS (NASALIZING)

VOICING

(Fromkin, Roldman & Hyams [2011] 245 & inside of back cover)

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manner of articulation exercise
MANNER OF ARTICULATION EXERCISE

TALKING SOFTLY: Everyone in the class should talk softly as they say something.

WHISPERING: Everyone in the class should whisper as they say something.

NOTE: In talking softly all of the vowels and most of the consonants are voiced, but in whispering none of the vowels or consonants are voiced. When you talk softly in church rather than whispering, your voice will carry throughout the church.

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slide7
NASALIZATION: The velic in the back of the throat opens and closes the nasal cavity to allow nasalization or not.

Everyone in the class should keep the velic open as they say something so that all of the sounds will be nasalized.

NOTE: If the velic is defective, or if the palate is defective, then many sounds become nasalized that should not be nasalized. This is why people with a detective palate must have an artificial palate installed.

(Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 249)

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slide8
DENALIZATION: Everyone in the class should keep the velic closed as they say something so that none of the sounds will be nasalized.

NOTE: People with adenoid problems, or with colds in their noses sound denasalized.

Now everyone in the class should hold their nose as they say something. Is the resulting sound a nasal sound, or a denasalized sound? Explain.

QUESTION: Are the nasal sounds in English stops or continuants?

ANSWER: From the point of view of the mouth, they are stops; however, from the point of view of the nose, they are continuants.

(Fromkin, Roldman & Hyams [2011] 245 & inside of back cover)

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slide9
CHANGE OF PITCH: The “voice box” is also called the “larynx.”

As air passes through the larynx it can be cut off (voiceless), or it can be allowed through (voiceless).

If the air is allowed through, but the vocal folds are held close together the result is a high pitch; if they are held close together the result is a low pitch.

Pitch can be heard only in voiced continuants.

All of our vowels, and most of our consonants are voiced continuants.

(Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 254-255, 299)

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regional dialects contrast the following
REGIONAL DIALECTSCONTRAST THE FOLLOWING

cot-caught

merry-marry-Mary

mourning-morning

pin-pen

witch-which

(Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 432-438)

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identify the sound identify the features
IDENTIFY THE SOUNDIDENTIFY THE FEATURES

Your teacher will give you three features, and you will give the unique sound that these three features identify.

Your teacher will give you a sound, and you will give the three or more features that will uniquely identify the sound.

(Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 260-265)

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slide18
PUNS

Richard Lederer in the introduction to his Get Thee to a Punnerysaid that puns are “a three-ring circus of words: words clowning, words teetering on tightropes, words swinging from tent-tops, words thrusting their heads into the mouth of lions.”

Tony Tanner said that a pun is like an adulterous bed in which two meanings that should be separated are coupled together.

(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)

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slide19
Debra Fried defined puns as “the weird accidents, amazing flukes and lucky hits that the one-armed bandit of language dishes up….”

This last example is a case of once-removed personification, since a “one-armed bandit” is itself a personified reference to a gambling machine.

(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)

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silent consonants
SILENT CONSONANTS

For each of the following words with a silent consonant, think of a related word in which the consonant is pronounced. This is not possible for all words.

autumn, bough, corps, debt, ghost, gnaw, hole, island, knot, lamb, mnemonic, pneumonia, psychology, pterodacty, resign, sword, write

(Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 224)

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spelling of long vowels
SPELLING OF LONG VOWELS

Short vowel sounds are easy to spell in English: “bit,” “bet,” “bat,” “but,” “bot” (a horse fly)

But long vowels in English are chaotic in their spelling. We might add a “silent” e, or write more than one vowel letter, etc.

Furthermore, our sound system has changed drastically, but our writing system has not, so on first blush, the English spelling system appears to be chaotic.

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spelling inconsistencies
spelling inconsistencies

I take it you already know

of tough and bough and cough and dough?

Some may stumble, but not you,

On hiccough, thorough, slough and through.

So now you are ready, perhaps,

To learn of less familiar traps?

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slide27
Beware of heard, a dreadful word

That looks like beard and sounds like bird.

And dead, it’s said like bed, not bead;

For goodness’ sake, don’t call it deed!

Watch out for meat and great and threat.

(They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.)

A moth is not a moth in mother,

Nor both in bother, broth in brother.

(Bolinger 480)

(Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 253)

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the walrus and the carpenter by lewis carroll
“THE WALRUS AND THE CARPENTER”by Lewis Carroll

Write the following in phonetic script:

The time has come the walrus said to talk of many things,

Of shoes and ships and seeling wax, of cabbages and kings,

and why the sea is boiling hot, and whether pigs have wings.

(Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 251)

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slide29

SIMILARITY THEORYIn this series of jokes, the puns of the first joke represents total similarity (or identity), and the puns in each joke from then on becomes less and less similar. In the last joke, the punning words are so dissimilar that it is a stretch to figure them out at all.

35

form meaning correspondences
FORM-MEANING CORRESPONDENCES

Antonyms (woman-man)

Heteronyms (bow-bow)

Homographs (bank-bank [NOTE: These are also Homophones)

Homonoids (sex and violins = saxon violence)

Homonyms (to-too-two)

Hyponyms (metaphor-metaphor)

Metanalysis (un naperon => an apron)

Polysemes (ring-ring)

Synonyms (dog-hound)

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identity
IDENTITY

Jorge Borges wrote a parody of Cervantes's Don Quixote. The parody used all of the same words, the same phrases and the same sentences as were in Cervantes’s original.

Borges claimed that his parody was much richer than the original because it contained all of the meaning of the original, plus it had all of the meaning of the parody.

In addition, the parody had the benefit of many years of literary criticism to add to its richness.

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polysemy
POLYSEMY

POLYSEMY: When a single word has two different senses.

Q: What did one tonsil say to the other?

A: You'd better get dressed. The doctor's taking us out tonight.

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homography
HOMOGRAPHY

HOMOGRAPHY: When two different words are pronounced and spelled the same.

Q: Why can't the leopard escape from the zoo?

A: Because he is always spotted.

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homophony
!HOMOPHONY

HOMOPHONY: When two different words are pronounced the same but are spelled differently:

Q: What's black and white and red/read all over?

A: A newspaper.

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homonoidism
!!HOMONOIDISM

HOMONOIDISM: When words are similar but not the same in sound and spelling:

1st: Knock Knock

2nd: Who's there?

1st: Eskimos, Christians, and Italians

2nd: Eskimos, Christians, and Italians who?

1st: Eskimos, Christians, and Italians no lies.

35

metanalysis
!!!METANALYSIS

METANALYSIS: An inaccurate understanding of where one word or phrase ends and the next one begins

Q: Why does a Frenchman have only one egg for breakfast?

A: Because one egg is an oeuf.

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phonetics web site
Phonetics Web Site:

Kleptomaniac (Johnny Carson & JackWebb):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mhLLU0H34ms

35

slide38
References:

Bolinger, Dwight. Aspects of Language, Second Edition. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.

Callary, Edward. “Phonetics.” in Language: Readings in Language and Culture, Sixth Edition. Eds. Virginia Clark, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa. New York, NY: Bedford, St. Martins, 1998, 113-133.

Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark. New York, NY: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. “Phonetics: The Sounds of Language. An Introduction to Language, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2011, 229-265.

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slide39
Have, Paul ten. Doing Conversation Analysis: A Practical Guide. London, England: Sage, 2007.

Klima, Edward, and Ursula Belugi. Sign Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. “Dialect Humor.” Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000, 101-104.

Nilsen, Don L. F. “English Spelling as a Morphophonemic System: A Sociolinguistic Perspective.” Wisconsin English Journal 33.2 (1991): 25-37.

Nilsen, Don L. F., and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Pronunciation Contrasts in English, 2nd Edition. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press 2010.

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