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Phonetics. LI 2023 Nathalie F. Martin. Introduction: Spoken Language. Language can be spoken, written, manually signed, mechanically reproduced and synthesized by computer Spoken language is the main way humans express themselves Humans spoke before they wrote

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LI 2023 Nathalie F. Martin

introduction spoken language
Introduction: SpokenLanguage
  • Language can be spoken, written, manually signed, mechanically reproduced and synthesized by computer
  • Spoken language is the main way humans express themselves
  • Humans spoke before they wrote
  • Reason why linguists start with the study of spoken rather than written language
made to speak4

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 2.

Made to Speak
  • Lungs: to supply air for speech
  • Trachea /treɪkiə/: wide pipe
  • Vocal cords: to produce vibrations for speech sounds. Also known as “vocal folds”

(found within the larynx/lærɪŋks/)

  • Tongue: to articulate vowels and consonants
  • Teeth: to provide place of articulation
  • Lips: to articulate vowels and consonants
  • Nose: to provide nasal resonance during speech
sound producing system features

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 18.

Sound-ProducingSystem: Features
  • Segments are produced by coordinating a number of individual articulatory gestures including:
    • Jaw movement
    • Lip shape
    • Tongue placement
sound producing system
Sound-producing System
  • Sound is produced when air is set in motion
  • Sets of filters modify the sound in various ways
    • Pharynx /færɪŋks/ (tube between larynx and oral cavity)
    • Oral cavity
    • Nasal cavity
sound producing system8
Sound-producing system
  • Lungs
  • Vocal cords

(or vocal folds)

  • Larynx (vocal folds

are within larynx)

(the velum is the soft area

Towards the rear of the roof

of the mouth)

the tongue

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 23.

The Tongue
  • Primary articulation organ
  • It can be:
    • Raised, lowered, thrust forward, retracted or rolled back
  • Five areas of the tongue:
    • Tip, blade, body, back and root
introduction to phonetics
Introduction to Phonetics


- Phones & segments


thinking phonetically

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 53.

Thinking Phonetically
  • Exercise (p. 53)
    • Find four words that show four alternative spellings of the sound [f]
    • Find six words that have the letter ‘a’ pronounced differently.
    • Find four words in which different groups of letters represent only one sound.
    • Find two words in which two different sounds are pronounced but not spelled out.
  • Definition:
    • The study of the inventoryand structureof the sounds of speech.
    • Analyzes the productionof all human speech sounds,
    • Regardless of language.
approaches to phonetics
Approaches to Phonetics
  • Articulatory phonetics
    • Studies the physiological mechanisms of speech production
  • Acoustic phonetics
    • Measuring and analyzing

the physical properties of

the sound waves we

produce when we speak

before we get started
  • Read: The OnederfulWerldovWords


    • Findwords (end/parts of words) that are written the same but thatsounddifferent.
    • Findwords (end/parts of words) that are writtendifferently but soundalike.
  • Definition:
    • Speech sounds
    • Infinite or finite possibilities of sounds?
      • Finite
      • The possibilities of sounds is limited by the vocal tract
      • According to one estimate: 600 consonants and 200 vowels
units of representation
Units of representation
  • Break up the flow of speech into individual sounds
    • Segments (individual phones or speech sounds)
    • Syllables
      • Cat
      • Class
      • Book
      • Extra
    • Nota:
      • Some writing systems are phonetic and syllabic
international phonetic alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
  • The IPA is a system of transcription
  • Represent each sound of human speech with a single symbol
    • « One sound, one symbol »
  • Important: Enclosed in square brackets [ ]
explore the ipa
Explore the IPA
  • Go through pronunciation of different sounds:
    • (cons.)
    • (vowels)
    • Nota bene: Sometimes two phonemes need to be used to represent a vowel.
  • IPA Chart
ipa transcription
IPA - Transcription
  • Broad transcription
    • Uses a relatively simple set of symbols to represent contrasting segments but does not show all phonetic detail
  • Narrow transcription
    • Show phonetic detail using an elaborate set of symbols
    • Here are fonts that you will need to see the IPA symbols:
ipa diacritics

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 635.

IPA - Diacritics
  • « Marks added to a phonetic symbol to alter its value in some way »
    • Example: a circle under a symbol to indicate voicelessness.
    • See your IPA chart
for help with phonetics
For help with phonetics

Linking sounds to symbols:

IPA Help, SIL International

Identifying articulatory features:

Interactive Sagittal Section, Daniel Hall, University of Toronto

* a bit confusing

Practice transcribing:

canadian american british dictionaries

Contemporary Linguistic: p. 38-40

Canadian, American & British Dictionaries
  • When checking your transcription, be careful:
    • Remember that you are transcribing something that you have actually heard … so sometimes you just might be right!
    • Always check if this is an American or British dictionary.
    • Even if it is American, it doesn’t mean that the transcription is the same as what would be typically used in Canada.
    • Boat:
the onederful werld ov words
The OnederfulWerldov Words
  • Beware if heard, a dreadful word.

That looks like beard and sounds like bird.

  • Watch out for meat and great and threat.

They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.

    • /hɜrd/ /mit/ /swit/
    • /wɜrd/ /greɪt/ /streɪt/
    • /bɪərd/ /θrɛt/ /dɛt/
    • /bɜrd/
sound producing system glottal states26
Sound-producing system Glottal States
  • Glottis: Space between the vocal folds
  • Vocal folds may be positioned in a number of ways to produce different glottal states
glottal states voicelessness
Glottal States: Voicelessness
  • When the vocal folds are pulled apart.
  • The air passes directly through the glottis.
  • Any sound produced when the folds are in this position are said to be voiceless.
  • Put your fingertips to your larynx.
    • Fish
    • Sing
    • House
glottal states voicing
Glottal States: Voicing
  • When the vocal folds are brought together, but not tightly closed.
  • Air passes through and causes them to vibrate.
  • Any sound produced when the folds are in this position are said to be voiced.
  • Put your fingertips to your larynx.
    • Zip
    • Vow
    • Or any vowel
glottal states whisper
Glottal States: Whisper
  • Whispering is voiceless.
    • No vibration of the cords.
  • The vocal cords are almost completely closed (though slightly apart at the back).
glottal states murmur
Glottal States: Murmur
  • Known as a breathy voice
  • Murmuring is voiced
    • Vibration of the vocal cords
  • Vocal folds are relaxed to allow air to escape to produce a breathy effect.
voiced or voiceless
Voiced or Voiceless?
  • [p]
  • [B]
  • [b]
  • [t]
  • [H]
  • [d]
  • [k]
  • [g]
  • [f]
  • [h]
  • [v]
  • [s]
  • [z]
  • [i]

Look up these sounds on your chart, then try to produce them. Then note whether they are voided or voiceless.

ipa voiced and voiceless
IPA: Voicedand Voiceless
  • [p] & [b]
  • [t] & [d]
  • [k] & [g]
  • [f] & [v]
  • [s] & [z]
  • Etc.
exercise 3 voiced or voiceless
Exercise 3: Voiced or Voiceless?
  • Ex: Though
  • Thought
  • Form
  • View
  • Zoom
  • Silk
  • Pan
  • Boat
  • /ox/ Voiced (vowel)
  • /t/ voiceless
  • /m/ voiced *
  • /u/ voiced
  • /m/ voiced
  • /k/ voiceless
  • /n/ voiced
  • /t/ voiceless

(Contemporary Linguistic analysis: An Introduction – O’Grady et al., 2009)

voiced voiceless
Voiced & Voiceless
  • Contemporary Linguistic analysis: An Introduction – O’Grady et al., 2009
    • Table 2.12 (p. 33) (consonants and glides)
      • 1st of pairs on IPA chart (left) – voiceless
      • 2nd of pairs on IPA chart (right) - voiced
      • English Nasals - voiced
      • Glides - voiced
      • Usually English liquids (‘r’ & ‘l’) are voiced
        • *but can also be voiceless
      • Vowels
sound classes
Sound Classes





Nota: Fill in the missing information with information given in book.


Nota: Fill in the missing information with information given in book.

sound classes consonants

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 21

Sound classes: CONSONANTS
  • Articulatory difference:
    • May be voiced or voiceless
    • May be made with either a complete closure or a narrowing of the vocal tract
    • The airflow is either blockedmomentarily or restrictedso much that the noise is produced as air flows past the constriction.
  • Consonants cannot be the nucleus of a syllable
    • Ex: “cup”
    • [b] & [s]
sound classes vowels
Sound classes: VOWELS
  • Articulatory difference:
    • Vowels are produced with little obstruction in the vocal tract and are usuallyvoiced
  • Acoustic Difference:
    • Vowels are more sonorous(acoustically powerful)
    • Perceived as louder and longer lasting
    • Ex: “happy”
  • Vowels can be the nucleus of a syllable.
  • /u/
sound classes glides
Sound classes: GLIDES
  • Shows properties of both consonants and vowels
  • May be thought of a rapidly articulated vowel (auditory impression they produce)
  • Produced with an articulation like that of a vowel
  • Glides can never be the nucleus of a syllable
  • Aka. Semi-consonants, semi-vowels
articulation organs tongue

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 23.

Articulation Organs : Tongue
  • Primary articulation organ
  • It can be:
    • Raised, lowered, thrust forward, retracted or rolled back
  • Five areas of the tongue:
    • Tip, blade, body, back and root
consonants place of articulation

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 24

Consonants: Place of Articulation
  • Also called points of articulation
  • Each point at which air stream can be modified to produce a different sound is called a place of articulation
  • Places of articulation are found at the lips, within the oral cavity, in the pharynx/færɪŋks/ and at the glottis /glɒtɪs/.
consonants place of articulation45
Consonants: Place of Articulation

place of articulation bilabial
Place of articulation: Bilabial
  • /baɪleɪbiəl/
  • Any sound made with closure or near-closure of the lips is said to be labial.
    • Bilabial: sounds involving both lips
      • Example: [p], [b] & [m]

place of articulation labiodental
Place of articulation: Labiodental
  • /leɪbioʊdɛntl/
  • Any sound made with closure or near-closure of the lips is said to be labial.


    • sounds involving the lower lip and the upper teeth
      • Example: [f] & [v]

place of articulation dental and interdental
Place of articulation: Dental and Interdental
  • /dɛntl/
  • Dental: Sounds produced with the tongue placed against or near the teeth
    • [t], [d], [s] & [z] (in European French)
    • Example: European French (temps, dire, sept, zizi)
  • Interdental: Produced with the tongue between the teeth
    • [θ] & [ð]
    • Example: The words thing & this
place of articulation alveolar
Place of articulation: Alveolar
  • /ælviələr/
  • Sounds produced when the tongue touches or is brought near to the alveolar ridge
  • Example: [t], [d], [n], [ɹ], [r], [ɾ]

[s], [z] & [l]

Spanish “r” = [r]



place of articulation alveopalatal palatal
Place of articulation: Alveopalatal& palatal
  • /ælvioʊpælətl/
  • Alveopalatal area: Just behind the alveolar ridge the roof of the mouth rises sharply
  • Alveopalatal consonants:
    • [ʃ], [ʒ], [ʧ] & [ʤ]
    • Example: Show, measure, chip & judge
  • Palatal glide:
    • [j]
    • Example: Yes & yours
place of articulation velar
Place of articulation: Velar
  • /vilər/
  • Velum : Soft area towards the back of the mouth
  • Velar: Sounds produced with tongue touching or near this position
    • [k], [g] & [ŋ]
    • Example: Call, guy & hang
  • Labiovelar: Sounds produced with tongue raised near the velum and the lips rounded at the same time
    • [w] like in wet
place of articulation uvular
Place of articulation: Uvular
  • /juvjələr/
  • Uvula: Small fleshly flap of tissue that hangs down from the velum.
  • Uvular: Sounds produced with the tongue touching or near this position.
    • None in English
    • European French « r » = [R]
place of articulation pharyngeal
Place of articulation: Pharyngeal
  • /fərɪndʒiəl/

Pharynx: Area of the throat between the uvula and the larynx.

Sounds made through the modification of the air flow in the pharynx by retracting the tongue or constricting the pharynx

    • [ʕ]
    • Example: The Arabic letter « ع » like in Jesus
place of articulation glottal
Place of articulation: Glottal
  • /glɒtl/
  • Sounds produced using the vocal folds as primary articulation
    • [h]
    • Example: Hog, heave
same or different place of articulation
Same or Different Place of Articulation?
  • Exercise 5 (O’Grady):
    • [s] : [l]
    • [p] : [g]
    • [l] : [r]
    • [m] : [n]
    • [f] : [h]
    • [w] : [j] (…)
  • Answers:
    • same
    • different
    • same
    • different
    • different
    • different

No chart

Allowed !

manner of articulation oral vs nasal
Manner of articulation: Oral vs Nasal
  • Oral: Velum is raised cutting of the airflow to the nasal passages
  • Nasal: Velum is lowered to allow air to pass through the nasal passages
  • Both consonants ([n] [m] [ŋ]) and vowels ([ã] [õ] etc.) can be nasal and are generally voiced
    • Example: Sun, sum, sung
    • No nasal vowels in English
    • French: “in” “an” “on”
manner of articulation stops
Manner of articulation: Stops
  • Stops are made with a complete closure either in the oral cavity or at the glottis
  • In English: Bilabial, alveolar and velar oral and nasal stops
    • [p], [b], [m], [t], [d], [n], [k], [g], [ŋ] & [ʔ]
    • Examples: Glottal stop in the sound [ʔ] like in the expression uh-uh (meaning “no”) or like in some British dialects [ʔ] is heard instead of a “t” (example: bottle)
manner of articulation fricatives
Manner of articulation: Fricatives
  • /frɪkətɪv/
  • Fricatives: Consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth
  • Part of a larger class called continuants
  • English fricatives:
    • [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z],

[ʃ], [ʒ] & [h]

manner of articulation affricates
Manner of articulation: Affricates
  • /æfrɪkɪt/ or /æfrɪkeɪt/
  • Affricate: Non-continuous consonant that show a slow release of the closure.
  • Affication: A process in which palatalized stops become afficates
    • [ʧ] & [ʤ]
    • Example: Church & Joke
manner of articulation liquids
Manner of articulation:Liquids
  • Different variants of « r » and « l »
  • Lateral: Varieties of « l »
    • As laterals are articulated, air escapes through the mouth alongthe lowersidesof the tongue
  • English « r »
    • Curlingthe tongue tip back into the mouth or by bunchingthe tongue upwards and back in the mouth
manner of articulation liquids continued
Manner of articulation: Liquids(continued)
  • English « r »
    • “Retroflex” [ɹ] or [r] = Curling the tongue tip back into the mouth or by bunching the tongue upwards and back in the mouth
      • Example: car & ride
      • Transcribed as [r] in textbook
    • Flap [ɾ] = Tongue tip strikesthe alveolar ridge as it passes across it
      • Example: North American pronunciation of bitter & butter
manner of articulation voice lag aspiration
Manner of articulation: Voice Lag& Aspiration
  • Lag: After the release of certain voiceless stops in English, you can hear a lag or brief delay before voicing the following vowel
    • Aspiration: Since the lag in the onset of vocalic voicing is accompanied by the release of air
  • Transcribed with a small [h]
    • Examples: pat [phæt], tub [thʌb] and cope [ khoxp]
    • Examples of unaspirated: spat [spæt], stub [stʌb] and scope [ skoxp]
manner of articulation glides
Manner of articulation: Glides
  • Glide: Very rapidly articulated non-syllabic segment
  • Jod or y-glide[j]: Palatal glide
  • W-glide [w]: Tongue raised and pulled back near the velum and with lips protruding or rounded.
  • [M]: Voiceless (labio)velar fricative glide
    • Example: When, where, which (but not in witch)
let s practice
Let’s Practice
  • Tell me the place of articulation and the manner of articulation of these sounds:
    • p
    • t
    • b
    • h
    • C
    • B
    • G
  • Voiceless bilabial plosive
  • Voiceless alveolar plosive
  • Voiced bilabial plosive
  • Voiceless glottal fricative
  • Voiced velar nasal
  • Voiceless dental fricative
  • Voiced post-alveolar fricative
  • Vowels: Sonorous, syllabic sounds made with the vocal tract more open than it is for consonants and glide articulation
  • Produced by varying the placement of the body of the tongue and shaping the lips
  • Can be altered by protruding or rounding the lips, by lowering the velum to produce nasal vowels or by constriction.
vowel qualities
Vowel Qualities
  • The placement of the body of the tongue:
    • Vertical: high – mid – low
    • Horizontal: front – central – back
  • The shape of the lips:
    • Rounded – Unrounded
  • The lowering of the velum: Nasal vowel
  • The degree of the vocal tract constriction:
    • Tense – Lax
tongue placement
Tongue Placement


vowels diphthongs
Vowels: Diphthongs
  • American vs. English:

  • Lets write these words out phonetically:
    • Note
    • My
    • Ebb
    • Degree
  • Coat
  • Clutch
  • Box
  • Bowl
  • Boy
  • Attic
  • /koʊt/
  • /klʌtʃ/
  • /bɒks/
  • /boʊl/
  • /bɔɪ/
  • /ætɪk/
  • /noʊt/
  • /maɪ/
  • /ɛb/
  • /dɪgri/
write the spelling of the following transcription
Write the spelling of the following transcription

/ʍɛn praɪd kʌmz dɪsgreɪs kʌmz

bʌt wɪθ ðə hʌmbl ɪz wɪzdʌm/

/prɒvɝbz əlɛvɪn tu/

  • When pride comes, disgrace comes, but with the humble is wisdom. (Proverbs 11:2)
♥ David♥
  • David’s father (Anglophone) calls him:
    • /deɪvɪd/
  • His mother (Francophone) calls him:
    • /de:vəd/
  • Explain his mother’s pronunciation in comparison to his dad’s (the English pronunciation).

Note: In French, we say /david/

Carole 
  • Carole is a Francophone learning English.
    • Wanting to ask for the /Hit/
    • She asks for the / Hqt /
  • Explain her pronunciation. What happened?
review battle of the linguists
Review : Battle of the Linguists
  • Write these words out phonetically:

Contemporary Linguistics: p. 40


Learn about different ways to mark prosodic properties of sounds.




prosodie like a song
Prosodie: Like a Song
  • Listen: Could there be different meanings?
    • /naɪs drɛs/
  • How would you say these sentences?
    • Nice dress.
    • Nice dress!
    • Nice dress?
  • All phones have suprasegmental (or prosodic) properties
    • Pitch
    • Loudness
    • Length

suprasegmentals pitch
Suprasegmentals: Pitch
  • All humans have the ability to control the level of pitch in their speech
    • By controlling the tension of the vocal folds and the amount of air that passes through the glottis
      • Tense vocal folds + greater air pressure = higher pitch
  • There are two kinds of controlled pitch movements: Tone and Intonation
suprasegmentals pitch tone
Suprasegmentals: Pitch - Tone
  • Tone language: A language where differences in word meaning are signaled by differences in pitch
    • Ex: Mandarin
    • Video:
suprasegmentals pitch tone87
Suprasegmentals: Pitch - Tone
  • Register tones: Level tones that signal meaning differences
    • Some tone language have 2 or 3, even 4 tones
    • Ex: High tone, middle tone, low tone
  • Marked with diacritic
    • [´] for high tones
    • [`] for low tones
  • Contour tones:
    • Ex: Mandarin
      • Rising pitch
      • Falling pitch
suprasegmentals pitch intonation
Suprasegmentals: Pitch - Intonation
  • Intonation: Pitch movement in spoken utterances that is not related to differences in word meaning
  • Often does serve to convey information
    • Terminal (intonation) contour
      • Final intonation at the end = signals that the utterance is complete
    • Non-terminal (intonation) contour
      • Rising or level intonation at the end = often signals incompleteness
suprasegmentals pitch intonation89
Suprasegmentals:Pitch - Intonation
  • Different intonation rules depending on English speaker:
    • Ex: “Exact change, please” (West Indian bus driver)
    • How would we say it in Canada?

Discourse and language education, Evelyn Marcussen Hatch (1992)

suprasegmentals length
Suprasegmentals: Length
  • Length: Vowels and consonants whose articulation takes longer relative to that of other vowels and consonants
  • Marked with diacritic:
    • [:] or IPA colon
  • Nota: Not the same as English long and short vowels
    • Ex: Hat [hæt] & hate [hejt]
suprasegmentals stress
Suprasegmentals: Stress
  • Some vowels are perceived as more prominent than others
    • Ex: [thɛləgræfɪk] = [ɛ] and [æ]
  • Vowel nuclei that are more prominent than other are [ɛ] and [æ]
suprasegmentals stress92
Suprasegmentals: Stress
  • Stress: A cover term for the combined effect of pitch, loudness and length
  • Marked by diacritics:
    • [´] for the most prominent or primary stress
    • [`] for the second most prominent or secondary stress
    • Examples in book (p. 38)
    • Examples in
    • MY TRICK: Rapper Stress Test 
suprasegmentals stress93
Suprasegmentals: Stress

suprasegmental prosodic properties
Suprasegmental/Prosodic properties
  • Pitch:
    • Tone: Pitch movement that is related to differences in word meaning.
    • Intonation: Pitch movement that is not related to differences in word meaning.
  • Stress:
    • (an) export vs. (to) export
    • (an) object vs. (to) object
let s practice suprasegmentals
Let’sPractice: Suprasegmentals
  • Mark the PRIMARYand secondary stresses on the following words:

James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the sudden disappearance of the island’s Governor and his assistant. When he arrives, 007 begins to suspect that the Governor’s absence is in some way linked to Dr No, the reclusive owner of a remote island which lies between Cuba and Jamaica.

let s practice transcribing
Let’s Practice Transcribing

  • Let’s go to “Some longer words”
  • As I read them aloud you will transcribe them in groups of two
  • I will then ask for someone to come an transcribe them directly on the website
  • We will then check the Transcriber’s “This is what I have …”
review suprasegmentals
Review: Suprasegmentals
  • What is pitch?
  • What is the difference between tone and intonation?
  • What is a tonelanguage?
  • How is length marked?
  • What is a common word for stress?
review battle of the linguists99
Review : Battle of the Linguists
  • Write these words out phonetically:
speech production101
Speech Production
  • Is not a series of isolated events
  • Complex
    • Articulatory organs are operating independently of each other
    • Many fine adjustments are carried out very rapidly as we speak.
    • As a consequence, speech production often results in the articulation of one sound affecting that of another sound
speech production coarticulation
Speech Production: Coarticulation
  • Coarticulation: More than one articulator is active
  • Example:

The sound [pl]

    • [pl] = [p] (bilabial- no tongue) + [l] (alveolar– with tongue)
    • Resulting in the tongue moving to the alveolar ridge (early) during the pronunciation of [p]
speech production processes
Speech Production: Processes
  • Processes: Articulatoryadjustments that occur during the production of connected speech
  • Result in :
    • A more efficientarticulation
    • A more distinctoutput
speech production processes104
Speech Production: Processes
  • Making articulation more efficient
    • Example:

Bank = [bæŋk]

      • [æ] (oral vowel) + [ŋ] (nasal consonant)
      • Anticiption of the nasal consonant [ŋ] results in the nasalization of the vowel [æ]

Key = [k] (velar) + [i] (Front, high and tense)

      • Results in a more palatal [k]
speech production processes105
Speech Production: Processes
  • Other examples:

Parade = [pəreɪd]

    • More efficient articulation results in the dropping of the unstressed vowel [ə] = [preɪd]
    • [p] (voiceless stop) + [r] (voiced lateral) = Voicelessness carried to [r]
speech production processes106
Speech Production: Processes
  • Making articulation less efficient
    • Lengthen consonants and vowels when they are asked to repeat a word
    • Example:
      • « It’s Fred. »
      • « Did you say ‘red’? »
      • « No, it’s ‘Fffreeed’! »
  • Greater articulatory effort, but …
  • Results in a more distinct form that is easier to perceive
speech production processes107
Speech Production: Processes
  • Adding a segment
    • Example:
      • « Stop screaming! »
      • « What? Stop dreaming? »
      • « I said, ‘Stop sc[ə]reaming!’ »
speech production common articulatory processes
Speech Production: Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Assimilation:
    • A number of different processes that are the result of the influenceof one segment on another
    • A sound becoming more likeanother nearby sound in terms of one or more phonetic characteristics
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Regressive assimilation: Assimilation in which a sound influences a preceding segment (e.g., nasalization in English)
  • Progressiveassimilation: Assimilation in which a sound influences a following segment (e.g., liquid-glide devoicing in English)
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Assimilation - Nasalization
    • Nasalization of a vowel before a nasal consonant is caused by speakers anticipatingthe lowering of the velum
    • Example: Can’t [khænt]
      • [æ] + [n] = nasalized [æ]
    • Regressive assimilation or progressive assimilation?
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Assimilation - Voicing assimilation
    • Devoicing:
      • Example of Please [pliz]
        • [p] (voiceless) + [l] (voiced) = devoiced [l]
    • Voicing:
      • Example of[af] (off or over) in Dutch
        • Afbellen (to cancel): [f] (voiceless) + [b] (voiced) = [vb] (both voiced)
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Assimilation – Flapping
    • A Process in which a dental or alveolar stop articulation changes to a flap [ɾ] articulation
    • Example:
      • Butter, writer, fatter, wader & waiter
    • Example : “I bought it” [ajbɑtɪt]
      • [ɑ] (stressed vowel) + [t] (dental consonant) = [ɾ] (flap)
  • Flapping is considered a type of assimilation since it changes a non-continuant segment to a continuant segment
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Dissimilation: The opposite of assimilation. It results in two sounds becoming less alike in articulatory or acoustic terms.
  • Results in a sequence of sounds that are easier to articulate and distinguish
    • Example: Fifths [fɪfθs]
      • [f] + [θ] + [s] = [fts]
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Deletion: Is a process that removes a segment from certain phonetic contexts
  • Occurs in everyday rapid speech
  • In English, the schwa [ə] is often deleted when the next vowel in the word is stressed
    • Examples: parade, corrode, suppose
      • [preid], [krowd] & [spowz]
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Epenthesis: Is a process that inserts a syllabic segment within an existing string of segments
    • Example: warmth [wormθ]
      • [wormpθ]
    • Example: Something [sʌmθɪŋ]
      • [sʌmpθɪŋ]
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Examples:
    • Warmth [wormpθ] = [m] + [p] + [θ]
    • Length [lɛŋkθ] = [ŋ] + [k] + [θ]
    • Prince [prɪnts] = [n] + [t] + [s]
    • Tenth [tɛntθ] = [n] + [t] + [θ]
  • Nota:
    • In English the epenthesized consonant are all non-sonorant, have the same place of articulation as the sonorant consonant to their left, and have the save voicing as the non-sonorant consonant to their right
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Metathesis: Is a process that reorders a sequence of segments
  • Often results in a sequence of phones that are easier to articulate
  • Common amongst children
    • Examples:
      • Spaghetti = pesghetti [pəskɛɾi]
      • Prescribe = perscribe [pərskraɪb]
      • Prescription = perscription [pərskrɪpʃən]
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Speech Production Common ArticulatoryProcesses
  • Vowel reduction: A process that moves the articulation of a vowel (typically unstressed vowel) to a more central position
  • In English: Reduction of a full vowel to a schwa [ə]
    • Example:
      • Canada [khænədə] (stressed vowel = æ)
      • Canadian [khənejdiən] (stressed vowel = ej)
african american vernacular english aave120
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
  • Listen and write down what you notice:
  • Discussion
  • General:
    • Double negatives;
    • Omission of certain auxiliary verbs;
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African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
  • Phonetically:
    • Final “ng” /ŋ / = / n /
      • Ex. “Tripping ” = [trɪpɪn])
      • Exception: not in one syllable words like “sing”
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African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
  • Phonetically:
    • May not use dental fricatives in some instances: /θ/ & /ð/
      • word-initially /θ / (same)
      • word-initially /ð/ = /d /
      • Word-medially or final /θ/ = /t/ or /f/
        • ex: “month” = [mʌnt]
      • Word-medially or final /ð/ = /v/
        • ex: “smooth” = [smu:v]
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African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
  • Phonetically:
    • Word-final devoicing of /b/, /d/ & /g/ (ex: “cub” = [kʌp])
    • Reduction of diphthongs (into monophthongs):
      • /aɪ/ = /a:/
      • /ɔɪ/ = /ɔ:/ (ex: “boil” = [bɔ:l] )
    • Diphthongation:
      • Simple vowel = diphthong (ex: “coach” = [koɪtʃ])
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African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
  • How do you think speakers of AAVE would pronounce the words:


IPA Chart


teaching aave
Teaching AAVE
  • Fox News and Black English – Ebonics:
  • Hooked on Ebonics:
  • Education of AAVE (African American Vernacular English)
and the canadian accent
And the Canadian Accent?

Canadian rising

Canadian Shift

Fast speech

canadian english

Contemporary Linguistic: p. 38-40

Canadian English
  • Canadian rising:
    • /a/ becomes/ y / in Canadian English (in /yx/and /yɪ/ )
  • Canadian Shift:
    • /c/ & / o / =/ o /
    • / è/ & /ɪ/ = / è/ & /A/
    • Go to chart and see if they are close and if they have the same features.