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CUI 4500 Instruction . September 29, 2012Skilled word reading; Learning to read words; Phonetics and Phonology; The Structure of English Orthography part one. Review Activity—Snowball 4 Part Processing Systems & Classroom Instruction.

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cui 4500 instruction

CUI 4500 Instruction

September 29, 2012Skilled word reading; Learning to read words; Phonetics and Phonology; The Structure of English Orthography part one

review activity snowball 4 part processing systems classroom instruction
Review Activity—Snowball4 Part Processing Systems & Classroom Instruction
  • On a blank piece of paper, describe one activity you frequently do with your class as you teach reading.
  • I will tell you what to do next.

p. 38

skilled word reading
Skilled Word Reading

2 domains

Printed Word

recognition

Language

Comprehension

x

lexical level factors
Lexical-Level Factors
  • Frequency and Word Recognition
    • More exposures to a word increases word recognition
    • Words learned earlier in life are read faster
  • Sub-Lexical factors
    • Phoneme Grapheme Correspondence
    • Consistent Spelling Patterns
    • We read morphemes
  • Contextual influences
    • Priming
    • Discourse
more is better
More is better…….

said

said

said

said

said

said

said

said

said

said

said

cain pg 28

consistency increases word recognition
Consistency increases word recognition

cat

hat

pat

mat

fat

rat

wash

cash

cain pg 29

semantically similar words are recalled faster
Semantically similar words are recalled faster

kind

kindly

unkind

kindness

Form

Inform

Information

cain pg 32

dual route cascade drc model
Dual-route cascade (DRC) model

Print

use the graphemes and sounds to figure out the word

use linguistic information to figure out the word

triangle model

Context Processor

Meaning Processor

Phonological Processor

Orthographic Processor

Triangle Model

Phonics

speechsound system

letter memory

language input

language output

writing output

reading input

learning to read words
Learning to Read Words

2 domains

Printed Word

recognition

Language

Comprehension

x

slide14

Phonological

Recoding

Ways to Read Words

Sight Word Reading

Reading by Analogy

Prediction from Context

ehri s phases of word reading development
Ehri’sPhases of Word-Reading Development

reading

fluently

by sound,

syllable,

morpheme,

whole word,

families,

and

analogies

early sight-

word

learning

letter

knowledge

phoneme-

grapheme

correspondence

incidental

visual cues

partial

phoneme

awareness

complete

phoneme

awareness

Prealphabetic Early Alphabetic Later Alphabetic Consolidated Alphabetic

phonetics the sounds of speech
Phonetics The Sounds of Speech

2 domains

Printed Word

recognition

Language

Comprehension

x

Why are speech sounds identification can be difficult

Consonants

Vowels

Articulation of speech sounds in the mouth

consonants
Consonants

"'Shut up' doesn't start with an S. (5 minutes later) Oh wait, yes it does. Don't laugh! I was thinking of the SHHH sound.“

-College Student

  • Purpose: Has Meaning
  • Articulation Feature: Some sort of closure
features of consonants
Features of Consonants
  • Place of Articulation
    • Lips
    • Tongues
    • Dental
    • Palatal
    • Velar
    • Glottal
  • Manner of Articulation
    • Stop and Continuants
    • Nasals
    • Fricatives
    • Affricatives
    • Glides
    • Liquids
    • Voiced or Unvoiced
vowels
VOWELS

Always end the name of your child with a vowel, so that when you yell the name will carry. -Bill Cosby

  • Purpose: Gives Volume
  • Articulation Feature: No closure
speech sounds of english
Speech Sounds of English

Vowel sounds that are close to each other are easily confused.

speech sounds of english and spanish4
Speech Sounds of English and Spanish

What does this suggest for instruction?

spanish consonant phonemes
Spanish Consonant Phonemes

Speech Sounds of English and Spanish

English Consonant Phonemes

Can you identify the sounds that ELL students will likely have difficulty with?

is phonemic awareness the same as phonological awareness
Is Phonemic Awareness the same as Phonological Awareness?

Phonological Awareness

words

onset-rime

phonemes

syllables

rhymes

Phonological awareness is the “umbrella.”

is phonemic awareness the same as phonics
Is Phonemic Awareness the Same as Phonics?

p

s

a

v

m

If you can do it with your eyes closed, it is phonemic awareness!

stages of phonological awareness development
Stages of Phonological Awareness Development

Intermediate Stage

Rhyming: production

Segmenting and Blending:

Syllables

Onset-rime

Sound Awareness:

Initial/medial/final sounds

Blending/segmenting

Counting sounds

Beginning Stage

Rhyming: recognition

Alliteration

Segmenting: counting words

Advanced Stage

Deletion

Substitution

Addition

Initial/medial/final sounds

Pre K

2nd Grade

Dodson, Kuhn

phonology speech sounds in use
Phonology: Speech Sounds in Use

2 domains

Printed Word

recognition

Language

Comprehension

x

Spoken Syllables

Phonological Processing and Literacy

Phonological Awareness

Minimal Pairs

Variations in pronunciation

Principles of Teaching

what s the difference between ch 2 and ch 3
What’s the difference between Ch. 2 and Ch. 3?

Phonetics

phonology

Study of speech sounds

A strand of the broader topic-phonology

Broader word

Includes both the sounds and the study of sound patterns/rules

Includes mental representations of patterns

spoken syllables
Spoken Syllables
  • Grouped around a vowel
  • Phonemes are grouped together into syllables
  • A syllable is a coarticulated unit
  • Every word has at least one syllable=at least 1 vowel sound
  • # of syllables = # of vowel sounds in a word

Let’s look at this word: IDIOT

How many vowel sounds? Watch your instructor as he/she demonstrates saying this word and count how many drops of the jaw is completed.

3

spoken syllables1
Spoken Syllables

Pipe, me

squeeze

blimp

Moats, p. 50

spoken syllables2
Spoken Syllables:
  • Let’s not forget that intonation, phrasing and stress also shifts the way we pronounce words.

Say the following sentences aloud, with emphasis placed on the red word.

John said to get the ball.

John said to get the ball.

John said to get the ball.

John said to get the ball.

phonological processing literacy
Phonological Processing & Literacy
  • Phonological processing is used subconsciously in listening and speaking.
  • Reading and writing, on the other hand, require conscious attention/awareness of phonological aspects of speech.
  • With the following slide, the instructor will assign groups to review the 3 essential kinds of oral language skills that encompass PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING
terminology counts defining the phon words graphic organizer
Terminology Counts! Defining the “Phon” WordsGraphic Organizer

Phonological Processing

phonological memory

metalinguistic awareness

speech

syllable

PWM

perception

onset-rime

retrieval

production

phoneme

naming

pp. 14-16

group 1 speech
Group 1: Speech
  • Speech: Unconscious phonological processing.
  • Perception (receptive language): How our brains perceive the acoustic signals of speakers.
  • Production (expressive language): Assembly and pronunciation of sounds and sequences of sounds.
confusion about sounds confusion about meaning
Confusion About Sounds, Confusion About Meaning

Input Storage Retrieval

goal/gold

offensive phonics/intensive phonics

reliable/liable

syllabus/syllable

group 2 phonological awareness
Group 2: Phonological Awareness
  • Metalinguistic Awareness/Phonological Awareness (these two terms are interchangeable) refers to the ability to identify, think about, and manipulate oral parts of words. While there are many levels of awareness, those most responsible for improvements in reading and spelling are included within this organizer.
  • Syllable: A unit of speech that is organized around a vowel sound.
  • Onset-rime: Onset is the beginning consonant sound(s), and the rime is the vowel and all following sounds within the syllable.
  • Phoneme: An individual speech sound.
identify words syllables onset rimes phonemes
Identify words, syllables, onset rimes, phonemes
  • Get 4 sticky notes…write each of the above underline word on a sticky note.
  • Hold up the sticky note that best describes what the instructor says.
group 3 phonological memory
Group 3: Phonological Memory
  • Phonological Memory: Retaining phonological information in memory.
  • PWM (Phonological Working Memory): Temporary mental storage of speech stimuli.
  • Retrieval: Formulating and pronouncing a word from memory.
  • Naming: A type of retrieval; producing a verbal label for a visual stimulus. Typically referred to as RAN (rapid automatized naming), this skill often asks students to name letters or numbers under timed conditions.
pwm example
PWM example:
  • Reverse the sequence of speech sounds in each of these words (say them backward) (HINT: say the sounds, not the letters)

Teach

Sigh

Cuts

Cash

Snitch

development of phonological awareness
Development of Phonological Awareness
  • insert slide from ECE letrs/paulson’s 4-5 year old chart (found at end of EC ppt)
minimal pairs
Minimal Pairs

When words differ only in one speech sound and all of the others are identical

Rode, wrote

Bed, bid

Damper, tamper

“If students can distinguish the sounds in minimal pairs of words and identify which sound makes one word different from another, then they are likely to have attained a level of awareness that fully supports word recognition, spelling, and vocabulary”—pg 60

variations in pronounciations
Variations in pronounciations

Small Groups will explore four different types of Allophonic variations:

  • Nasalizations
  • Aspirations
  • Flapping
  • Affrications
allophonic variation
Allophonic Variation
  • Aspiration of /p/, /t/, and /k/.
  • Nasalization of a vowel before a nasal consonant; deletion of a nasal consonant after a vowel and before another consonant.
  • Flapping of /t/ and /d/.
  • Affrication of /t/ or /d/ before /r/ or /y/.

Let’s look at each of these separately.

aspiration of p t and k
Aspiration of /p/, /t/, and /k/
  • /p/, /t/, and /k/ are pronounced with a push of breath at the beginning of a syllable and before a vowel.

As you say these words, put your hand in front of your mouth to feel the air:

pet, prizetip, tart cat, couch

  • If /p/, /t/, and /k/ are the second sound in a blend, there is no push of breath.

Now say these words while feeling the air. Notice the difference?

pit, spittart, startkin, skin

  • If /p/, /t/, and /k/ are at the end of a word, students often confuse the sound with the voiced partner or omit the letter altogether.

p. 48

aspiration
Aspiration

English Consonant Phonemes by Place and Manner of Articulation

/p//b/

/k/ /g/

/t/ /d/

sbider, sbeslsdashn, sdrtsgin, sgary

What words are the young students

trying to spell?

/r/

nasalization of a vowel
Say these word pairs while holding your nose:

bad, band said, send

rat, rant dote, don’t

sick, sinkpuck, punk

What happens to the vowel sounds that come right before the nasals?

Students often lose or confuse nasal sounds in their spellings.

Nasalization of a Vowel
nasalization of a vowel1
Nasalization of a Vowel

English Consonant Phonemes by Place and Manner of Articulation

/n/

/ng/

/m/

sik, wet, basemet, juppy, siple

What words are the young studentstrying to spell?

/r/

flapping of t and d
Flapping of /t/ and /d/
  • In American dialect, the middle sound of /t/ is changed to /d/ when it falls between an accented and unaccented vowel.
  • Say the following words:

water letter writer little

British better matter potter

  • What happens to the middle sound?
flapping of t and d1
Flapping of /t/ and /d/

English Consonant Phonemes by Place and Manner of Articulation

/t/

/d/

/r/

p. 49

flapping of t and d2
Flapping of /t/ and /d/
  • Given this allophonic variant, watch how students often misspell these words:

water wadr

better bedr

writer wridr

British Bridish

little lidl

matter madr

letter ledr

affrication of t and d
When a /t/ or /d/ is before an /r/ or a /y/, the sounds for the /t/ and /d/ change.

The sounds feel more like /ch/ for /t/ and /j/ for /d/.

Look at why this is:

Say /t/. Now say /r/.

Say /d/. Now say /r/.

How does your mouth look and feel when you say these sounds? Use your mirrors to check.

Let’s see what happens when these sounds are embedded within words.

Affrication of /t/ and /d/
affrication of t and d1
Affrication of /t/ and /d/

English Consonant Phonemes by Place and Manner of Articulation

/t/ /d/

What words are students

trying to spell?

chran, chrick, hret

jrs, jragin, gran

/ch//j/

/r/

when followed by /r/

affrication of t and d2
Watch and feel what happens when /t/ or /d/ comes before the glided sound /y/:

Say the word Nate. Now say nature.

Say Ed. Now say educate.

How does your mouth change when you say each pair?

Affrication of /t/ and /d/

p. 49

slide63

Spelling Sample: Second-Grade Student

My favorite holiday

Is forofjloiliktowochmybruver lot the

fiveyro I git to live 7 fiveyroscolev l flou in

the aruq all the rast do iot flay sum did I

out on an off anilik to wich the feryrsck.

Br Br

slide64

Spelling Sample: Second-Grade Student

My favorite holiday

Is forofjloiliktowochmy bruver lot the

fiveyro I git to live 7 fiveyrosc olev l flou in

the aruq all the rast do iot flay sum did I

out on an off ani lik to wich the feryrsck.

Br Br

general principles of teaching phoneme awareness
General Principles of Teaching Phoneme Awareness
  • Think multisensory!
  • A few brief activities (about 5-10 minutes daily)
  • Encourage mouth awareness
  • Focus on speech sounds before letters
  • Follow a scope and sequence of phonological skill development (developmental progression)
  • Include all English phonemes in the instruction
  • I do, We do, You do model
  • Give immediate corrective feedback
  • Use letters as soon as students are ready
unit 1 example lesson
Unit 1 example lesson
  • Phoneme production/replication: repeat these sounds…./a/ /t/ /s/ /m/ /b/ /k/ /f/ am, tan, sat, mat, bat, cat, fat
  • Phoneme isolation: Say am, (repeat am), Say am (repeat am) What’s the first sound in am? /a/ Say am (repeat am), say am (repeat am) What’s the last sound in am? /m/
  • Phoneme Segmentation/Counting: Say mat, (repeat mat), Say mat, (repeat mat), Say the sounds in mat. M-a-t

Jane Fell Greene, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers, 1997

unit 1 sample lesson
Unit 1: sample lesson

4. Phoneme Blending: Listen and repeat. Listen and repeat:/b//a//m/ (repeat 3 times) Bam

5. Rhyming: say sat. (repeat sat) Say sat. Repeat sat. Say a word that rhymes with sat. (hat, cat, bat, at)

6. Phoneme Deletion: Say at. (repeat at) Say at. (repeat at) Say at without the /t/. /a/

7. Phoneme Substitution: say sat. (repeat sat) Say sat. (repeat sat.) Now change the first sound in sat to /k/. (cat)

8. Phoneme Reversal: Say mat. (repeat mat) say mat (repeat mat) Now change the first sound to last and the last sound to first. (tam)

unit 1 sample lesson continued
Unit 1 sample lesson continued
  • Pig Latin: Say bat. (repeat bat) Say bat (repeat bat) Say bat without the /b/. /at/
  • Say /at/ (repeat at) Say at (repeat at). Say at with /b/ at the end. /at b/

Now say /ay/ at the end. /at bay/

Greene, Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers

the structure of english orthography
The Structure of English Orthography

2 domains

Printed Word

recognition

Language

Comprehension

x

History of English

Phoneme and Grapheme Mapping

george bernard shaw
George Bernard Shaw

ghoti

cough

women

nation

5 principles for understanding english orthography
5 principles for understanding English orthography

We spell by language of origin.

We spell by phoneme-grapheme correspondence.

Orthography

We spell position of phoneme or grapheme in a word.

We spell by letter order and sequence patterns, or orthographic conventions.

We spell by meaning (morphology) and part of speech.

angelo saxon influence in english
Angelo Saxon influence in English
  • Dates back 20,000 years
  • Starts with words from tribes in Eastern Europe
  • Found in Germanic languages of German, Swedish, Dutch and English
  • One syllable and everyday objects, activities and events
  • Must have a vowel in each syllable
  • New words created using compound words
angelo saxon influence in english1
Angelo Saxon influence in English
  • Uses vowel teams; digraphs; silent letters
  • irregular spellings

mom, football, at, see, sky, moon, horse, finer, shoe, shirt, pants, sister, hate, touch, think, head, would, do

norman french influence in english
Norman (French) influence in English
  • Words related to culture, fashion and food
  • Abstract social ideas and relationships
  • Ou for /ū/ as in soup; soft c and g when followed by e, i or y; special endings –ine, -ette, -elle, -ique

beef, couture, rendezvous, amuse, rouge, coupon, novice, croquet, debut, mirage, justice

latin based languages
Latin based languages

Spanish

French

Italian

Romanian

latin influence in english
Latin influence in English
  • Multi-syllable words organized around a root
  • Often found in literature, social studies and science
  • Typically found in upper elementary grades
  • Most roots contain short vowels
  • The schwa if most found in Latin words
  • Affixes
latin influence in english1
Latin influence in English
  • Latin roots can form hundreds of thousands of words
  • Represent more abstract concepts

excellent, direction, interrupt, firmament, terrestrial, solar, stellar, aquarium, locomotion, hostility, reject, deception

why the latin alphabet doesn t work for english
Why the Latin alphabet doesn’t work for English

English has 44 sounds but there are only 26 letters!

slide85

"...as every Letter ought to be, confin'd to one; the same is to be observ'd in all the Letters, Vowels and Consonants, that wherever they are met with, or in whatever Company, their Sound is always the same. It is also intended that there be no superfluous Letters used in Spelling, i.e. no Letter that is not sounded, and this Alphabet by Six new Letters provides that there be no distinct Sounds in the Language without Letters to express them".

- Benjamin Franklin

greece
Greece

10th Century

St. Augustine

16th Century

Tudors

greek influence in english
Greek influence in English
  • Mostly found in science vocabulary
  • Some of the less common letter-sound graphemes such as rh (rhododendron), pt (pterodactyl), pn (pneumonia), ps (psychology)
  • constructed from combining forms (similar to compound words
greek influence in english1
Greek influence in English
  • Learning a relatively few Greek roots allow you access to thousands of words (i.e. micro, scope, bio, graph)

hypnosis, agnostic, neuropsychology, decathlon, catatonic, agoraphobia, chlorophyll, psysiognomy

identify the language of origin
Identify the language of origin

_____ hemisphere

_____ inducement

_____ groundhog

_____ gnocchi

L- Latin/French; G- Greek; AS- Anglo Saxon; O-other

G

_____ arms

_____ kaput

_____ dealt

_____ stadium

AS

_____ etymology

_____ suffix

_____ knight

_____ wanted

G

L

O

L

AS

AS

AS

O

L

AS

Speech to Print Workbook, L Moats

ch sort these ch spellings what is their language or origin
CH- sort these ch spellings; what is their language or origin

chauffer

chalk

character

machine

chair

chalet

cheek

chestnut

chagrin

cholesterol

chateau

chlorophyll

lunch

chaos

chuck

chase

school

chapstick

cache

chemical

chlorine

Speech to Print Workbook, L Moats

evolution of spelling
Evolution of Spelling

Old English->Middle English – adopted spelling habits

-started letter combinations au/aw, ai/ay

Silent e – Old English was pronounced; dropped pronunciation in

Middle English; add e for appearance or spelling consistency;

1600’ s Became the guide for pronunciation for long vowel sounds and

to make c or g say the soft sound

1350 to 1500Century – Great Vowel Shift – middle to modern English

Previously the vowels sounds similar to Latin vowel production;

The long vowel sounds were raised in the mouth; some turned

into diphthongs

Modern English has been fixed since the 17th Century

great vowel shift why
Great Vowel Shift (WHY?)

The pronunciation of vowels changed but the spellings did not; this account for some of the most peculiar spellings in English

english is heavily influenced
English is heavily influenced…

“English is a system heavily influenced by its word origins in spite of many historical efforts to simplify and standardize. English continues to adult words from other languages, assimilation their spelling as well as their meanings.”

  • -Moats
where do these words come from
Where do these words come from?

bungalow, dinghy

pistol, polka, robot

ammonia, ebony, ivory

bard, golf, slogan, whisky

amen, gauze, kosher

husky, kayak, igloo

judo, soy, tycoon

cocoa, llama

Bengali

Czech

Egyptian

Scottish

Hebrew

Inuit

Japanese

Quechua

phoneme grapheme
Phoneme/Grapheme

Grapheme

Graph= write; -eme = unit of structure

Written form of a sound

Phoneme

Phono= sound; -eme = unit of structure

distinctive sounds

warm up identify the graphemes we do
Warm-Up: Identify the GraphemesWe Do

a

b

r

s

i

k

Take out five coins, chips, or blocks.

p. 23

graphemes
Graphemes
  • A grapheme is a letter or letter pattern that corresponds to or represents a phoneme (speech sound).
  • Graphemes can be one, two, three, or four letters in English!

Examples:

1 letter: a as in strap

2 letters: ng as in ring

3 letters: tch as in ditch

4 letters:ough as in through

pp. 24-25

we use graphemes letters and letter combinations
We Use Graphemes: Letters and Letter Combinations

Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondence:

/ch/ /ē/ /z/ /d/ /ū/ /d/ /l/ /z/

chee se d oo d le s

types of consonant graphemes
Types of Consonant Graphemes
  • Single letters (including blends): trap, spend
  • Doublets: puff, hill, lass, fizz
  • Digraphs: chain, shrink, either, phone
  • Trigraphs: wedge, botch
  • Consonants in blends: scrape, thrush
  • Silent-letter combinations: comb, autumn, folk
  • Odd letter x: box, exact
  • Combination qu: quickly
types of vowel graphemes
Types of Vowel Graphemes
  • Single Letters(long and short):

robot, capon, moped

  • Vowel Teams: east, south, night, blue
  • Vowel-r Combinations: her, bird, fur, car
  • Vowel-Consonant-e: cape, kite, cube, rode
assignment
Assignment
  • Exit Slip Due at the end of class (ask your instructor on their preferred method of turning in)
  • Part One Assessments completed on two students
    • Due on Oct 2, 2012
readings
Readings

Chapters 4 and 5

next class

Next Class

The structure of English Orthography part two; Morphology