CUI 4500 Instruction September 29, 2012Skilled word reading; Learning to read words; Phonetics and Phonology; The Structure of English Orthography part one
Review Activity—Snowball4 Part Processing Systems & Classroom Instruction • On a blank piece of paper, describe one activity you frequently do with your class as you teach reading. • I will tell you what to do next. p. 38
Skilled Word Reading 2 domains Printed Word recognition Language Comprehension x
Lexical-Level Factors • Frequency and Word Recognition • More exposures to a word increases word recognition • Words learned earlier in life are read faster • Sub-Lexical factors • Phoneme Grapheme Correspondence • Consistent Spelling Patterns • We read morphemes • Contextual influences • Priming • Discourse
More is better……. said said said said said said said said said said said cain pg 28
When did you learn it? cain pg 28
Regularity increases word recognition CAT BEIGE cain pg 29
Consistency increases word recognition cat hat pat mat fat rat wash cash cain pg 29
Semantically similar words are recalled faster kind kindly unkind kindness Form Inform Information cain pg 32
Dual-route cascade (DRC) model Print use the graphemes and sounds to figure out the word use linguistic information to figure out the word
Context Processor Meaning Processor Phonological Processor Orthographic Processor Triangle Model Phonics speechsound system letter memory language input language output writing output reading input
Learning to Read Words 2 domains Printed Word recognition Language Comprehension x
Phonological Recoding Ways to Read Words Sight Word Reading Reading by Analogy Prediction from Context
Ehri’sPhases of Word-Reading Development reading fluently by sound, syllable, morpheme, whole word, families, and analogies early sight- word learning letter knowledge phoneme- grapheme correspondence incidental visual cues partial phoneme awareness complete phoneme awareness Prealphabetic Early Alphabetic Later Alphabetic Consolidated Alphabetic
Phonetics The Sounds of Speech 2 domains Printed Word recognition Language Comprehension x Why are speech sounds identification can be difficult Consonants Vowels Articulation of speech sounds in the mouth
Consonants "'Shut up' doesn't start with an S. (5 minutes later) Oh wait, yes it does. Don't laugh! I was thinking of the SHHH sound.“ -College Student • Purpose: Has Meaning • Articulation Feature: Some sort of closure
Features of Consonants • Place of Articulation • Lips • Tongues • Dental • Palatal • Velar • Glottal • Manner of Articulation • Stop and Continuants • Nasals • Fricatives • Affricatives • Glides • Liquids • Voiced or Unvoiced
VOWELS Always end the name of your child with a vowel, so that when you yell the name will carry. -Bill Cosby • Purpose: Gives Volume • Articulation Feature: No closure
Speech Sounds of English Vowel sounds that are close to each other are easily confused.
Speech Sounds of English and Spanish What does this suggest for instruction?
Spanish Consonant Phonemes Speech Sounds of English and Spanish English Consonant Phonemes Can you identify the sounds that ELL students will likely have difficulty with?
Is Phonemic Awareness the same as Phonological Awareness? Phonological Awareness words onset-rime phonemes syllables rhymes Phonological awareness is the “umbrella.”
Is Phonemic Awareness the Same as Phonics? p s a v m If you can do it with your eyes closed, it is phonemic awareness!
Stages of Phonological Awareness Development Intermediate Stage Rhyming: production Segmenting and Blending: Syllables Onset-rime Sound Awareness: Initial/medial/final sounds Blending/segmenting Counting sounds Beginning Stage Rhyming: recognition Alliteration Segmenting: counting words Advanced Stage Deletion Substitution Addition Initial/medial/final sounds Pre K 2nd Grade Dodson, Kuhn
Phonology: Speech Sounds in Use 2 domains Printed Word recognition Language Comprehension x Spoken Syllables Phonological Processing and Literacy Phonological Awareness Minimal Pairs Variations in pronunciation Principles of Teaching
What’s the difference between Ch. 2 and Ch. 3? Phonetics phonology Study of speech sounds A strand of the broader topic-phonology Broader word Includes both the sounds and the study of sound patterns/rules Includes mental representations of patterns
Spoken Syllables • Grouped around a vowel • Phonemes are grouped together into syllables • A syllable is a coarticulated unit • Every word has at least one syllable=at least 1 vowel sound • # of syllables = # of vowel sounds in a word Let’s look at this word: IDIOT How many vowel sounds? Watch your instructor as he/she demonstrates saying this word and count how many drops of the jaw is completed. 3
Spoken Syllables Pipe, me squeeze blimp Moats, p. 50
Spoken Syllables: • Let’s not forget that intonation, phrasing and stress also shifts the way we pronounce words. Say the following sentences aloud, with emphasis placed on the red word. John said to get the ball. John said to get the ball. John said to get the ball. John said to get the ball.
Phonological Processing & Literacy • Phonological processing is used subconsciously in listening and speaking. • Reading and writing, on the other hand, require conscious attention/awareness of phonological aspects of speech. • With the following slide, the instructor will assign groups to review the 3 essential kinds of oral language skills that encompass PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING
Terminology Counts! Defining the “Phon” WordsGraphic Organizer Phonological Processing phonological memory metalinguistic awareness speech syllable PWM perception onset-rime retrieval production phoneme naming pp. 14-16
Group 1: Speech • Speech: Unconscious phonological processing. • Perception (receptive language): How our brains perceive the acoustic signals of speakers. • Production (expressive language): Assembly and pronunciation of sounds and sequences of sounds.
Confusion About Sounds, Confusion About Meaning Input Storage Retrieval goal/gold offensive phonics/intensive phonics reliable/liable syllabus/syllable
Group 2: Phonological Awareness • Metalinguistic Awareness/Phonological Awareness (these two terms are interchangeable) refers to the ability to identify, think about, and manipulate oral parts of words. While there are many levels of awareness, those most responsible for improvements in reading and spelling are included within this organizer. • Syllable: A unit of speech that is organized around a vowel sound. • Onset-rime: Onset is the beginning consonant sound(s), and the rime is the vowel and all following sounds within the syllable. • Phoneme: An individual speech sound.
Identify words, syllables, onset rimes, phonemes • Get 4 sticky notes…write each of the above underline word on a sticky note. • Hold up the sticky note that best describes what the instructor says.
Group 3: Phonological Memory • Phonological Memory: Retaining phonological information in memory. • PWM (Phonological Working Memory): Temporary mental storage of speech stimuli. • Retrieval: Formulating and pronouncing a word from memory. • Naming: A type of retrieval; producing a verbal label for a visual stimulus. Typically referred to as RAN (rapid automatized naming), this skill often asks students to name letters or numbers under timed conditions.
PWM example: • Reverse the sequence of speech sounds in each of these words (say them backward) (HINT: say the sounds, not the letters) Teach Sigh Cuts Cash Snitch
Development of Phonological Awareness • insert slide from ECE letrs/paulson’s 4-5 year old chart (found at end of EC ppt)
Minimal Pairs When words differ only in one speech sound and all of the others are identical Rode, wrote Bed, bid Damper, tamper “If students can distinguish the sounds in minimal pairs of words and identify which sound makes one word different from another, then they are likely to have attained a level of awareness that fully supports word recognition, spelling, and vocabulary”—pg 60