Objectives • Analyze spelling patterns and align to stages of spelling development > set goals for what to teach next • Review key practices for assessing spelling development • Score and analyze individual results with a partner to determine developmental stages of two students • Using classroom profiles to group for instruction
How do children learn how to spell? Concepts of print Letter-sound correspondence (match) Spelling within a one-syllable word Build words with multi-syllables Word meanings related to spelling
How do children learn how to spell? • Concepts of print • Letter-sound correspondence • Spelling within a word • Build words with multi-syllables • Word meanings 1. Emergent:Scribbles>letters & directionality 2. Letter-Name: Alphabetic principle, consonants / short vowels /cons.blends 3. Within-word patterns: long vowel, bossy-r, vowel combinations 4. Syllables & Affixes (Word Endings): plurals, tenses 5.Derivational Relations:relationship btw spelling & meaning, various forms
Can you match them up? personable, personality kit(kite) runing(running) lOEO~~OllOAOo~~ TD(today) frend(friend) Derivational Late Letter Name Syllables/Affixes Emergent Early Letter Name Within-Word What patterns are they using? What patterns are they confusing? What should you teach next?
Steps in Determining Student’s Stage of Spelling Development • 1. Choose writing samples • 2. Identify misspelled words • 3. Make a spelling analysis chart • 4. Categorize student’s misspellings • 5. Tally the errors • 6. Identify topics for instruction
Spelling Development in Letter-Name Alphabetic Stage • Letter-Sound Correspondence (beginning, end, middle) • CVC decodable words – examples? • Cons. Digraphs – examples? • Cons. Blends – example? • Pacing/Sequence Chart WTW p. 161
Spelling Development in Within Word Pattern Stage • Vowel patterns(long, r-controlled, w-controlled, l-controlled) see p. 175 • Vowel Dipthongs (Whiners – oo, oy/oi, ow/ou; aw/au) • Complex Consonants(ck, ch/tch, kn, dge/ge, squ, scr/spr/str) • Pacing Chart WTW p. 216 (p. 180 4th)
Today a person at home called us and said that a bomb was in our school and made us go outside and made us wait a half of an hour and it made us waste our time on learning. The end. (Written by Marc in Grade 1)
Letter-Name Alphabetic Within-Word Syllables & Affixes Other Issues Conclusion: Goals for Word Study Instruction: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Letter-Name kod (called) wuz (was) mad (made) sid (side) uf (of) wazt (waste) Within Word seb (said) bome (bomb) or (our) at (out) skuwl (school) makde (made) wat (wait) haf (half) awr (hour) Loreneeing (learning) Today a person at home called us and said that a bomb was in our school and made us go outside and made us wait a half of an hour and it made us waste our time on learning. The end. Letter Formation b for d z for s Syllables & Affixes peresun (person)
Conclusion: Marc spelled 56% of the words correctly and most of his spelling errors were in the letter-name and within-word patterns stages, which is typical of first graders’ spelling. • What goals for word study instruction? • Letter d (vs. b) and letter s (vs. z) • High-frequency words (of, was, out) • CVCe vowel pattern • ed past tense ending • Some within word patterns (ai, oo, ou)
Teaching Spelling • Sound it out > Think it out (think about spelling patterns, root words, affixes, the shape of the word, etc) • Stretch & spell each sound; • Break the word into syllables and use patterns from open and closed syllables; • Word Walls; Word Sorts; and Making Words • Interactive Writing: model and write WITH students helping
Try it out…Mapping Early Literacy Writing Samples to Developmental Spelling Stages
Qualitative Spelling Inventories • Words Their Way Spelling Assessments • Primary Spelling Inventory (Gr. K-3 Emergent to Late Within-Word Patterns) • Elementary Spelling Inventory (Gr. 1-6 Letter-Name to early derivational relations) • Upper Level Spelling Inventory (Gr. 5-12 Within word pattern to derivational relations)
Using Spelling Inventories • Select inventory based on grade level and students’ achievement levels • Administer with brief introduction and know when to stop • Analyze students’ spelling using a feature guide • Organize groups using the Spelling by Stage form and/or a Classroom Composite form
How to Score & Analyze Spelling Inventories A. Use total accuracy to group with minimal information: • Mark words right or wrong on list (write correct spelling next to it) • Use the chart to tally the words spelled correctly in the right column and calculate a power score. Use power score to estimate a stage (see WTW, p. 34). B. Use feature patterns to determine individual strengths, weaknesses, and instructional goals: • For each word, check off features got correct and write in errors and circle. • For each word, add up the feature checks along each row and add up each column for individual features.
Common confusions to keep in mind • Handwriting errors: • Reverse letter formation (b/d/p; s/z; or just letters written backwards) • Reverse order of letters (was vs. saw) • Give credit for features gotten but if add extra letters, don’t mark word spelled correctly • FNWZTY for fan or FANE for fan • LOOKTED for looked
TRY IT OUT • Work with one partner to record the spelling patterns of your two students. • Use one Features Guide Form in your handout for each student. • When finished, look for patterns (similarities/differences) across your two readers. Make a list of what you might teach next for each student (based on what each knows and what is confusing) • Then, we’ll look at whole class patterns that can inform grouping decisions.
Make whole class grouping decisions • 1. Plot the students in “our class” on the Spelling-by-Stage classroom organization chart • 2. Make decisions about group size and composition • 3. Use the classroom composite chart to make more informed decisions about grouping and instruction (For the sake of time, we’ll explore the model on WTW, p. 41)
Homework • Finish Text-Based Discussion for Ruby the Copycat • Read Leveled Reading Systems Handout • **Email me with Word Study Lesson Topic and word list (sorted if applicable) no later than Friday Nov. 4