South Carolina in the Early 1700s 1729 King George I accepted the request to make SC a royal colony
The Thirteen Colonies
Changes in the Colony • SC would change in several ways after becoming a royal colony. • The economy would be benefited when the _____ of _____ increased subsides, which allowed higher profits, for naval stores • Also, the Board allowed the colony to trade directly with foreign markets. • This also increased rice profits
Creation of a new colony out of the southern portion of SC. Georgia Created for two reasons As a ____ _____for protection from Spanish Florida. As a prison colony for debtors. Problems with the new colony While it did create a sense of security for SC’s inhabitants, it also resulted in less land being available to South Carolinians. Became a safe haven for runaway ______. Created competition in ____ production.
Two Different South Carolinas Low Country • All early settlements in SC were built along the coast, so all the high quality infrastructure was located in the tidewater region of the ____ _______. • Many of the most important colonists or “Downers” lived there, and it would be the most important region for many years. • Home for most of wealthy plantation owners and exporters. • Most of the representatives of the Assembly came from this region. • Most of the slaves were located there. • Where most of the wealth was located. • Most of the law and _______ were located in the Low Country.
That Other SC Up Country • Largest part of the colony. • By the mid 1700s the majority of the white population was located here. • Not well or fairly represented in the _________ until 1860. • The majority of the population were poorer subsistence farmers. • Fewer ________ • Would benefit when the Board of Trade created eleven townships to encourage settlements. • The more settlers in the Up Country meant more protection from Indians. • Not an easy place to live. • ________ attacks were more frequent. • To get anywhere they had to walk long distances on poor ______.
Two Distinct Regions • So different but one colony. • The settlers had different cultural backgrounds. • Farms were different in size. • Level of Education was better in the Low Country. • Courts and Law more abundant in the tidewater.
The Regulator Movement • Law and Order • When there were few settlers there was little need for _______ and ______ in the Up Country. • But with the creation of the _________ a population boom occurred. • Drifters, outlaws, and horse thieves also boomed. • ________ began to attack honest people and could not be brought to justice. • Because most of the Assembly was from the ____________, the request for courts and sheriffs went unanswered. • This is one of the biggest and earliest conflicts between the Up and the Low.
The Up Country Strikes Back • 1767 the Uppers had enough. • Vigilantes began to provide justice as they saw fit. • They were called ______________. • Often abused justice and the rights of the accused. • Some were wolves in sheep’s clothing. • The Governor Montague tried to stop the Regulators • First he condemned them, then asked for more ______ but nothing stopped them. • Finally, the Assembly passed the _____________________. • Established seven courthouses and sheriffs. • Helped provide justice • But, and this is a BIG BUT, Do you like BIG BUTS? • It improved the moral of the Up Country
It’s Your Turn • You are a European settler arriving in SC in the 1700s. • Where would you settle? • What are the disadvantages? • You are an Upper. You are upset that your pleas for justice have not been answered by the Assembly. You plan a protest march on the Assembly. • Make a protest sign. • How do you feel?
Indian Relations Settlement of the _________ created problems with the _______. The ______ still had hard feelings as a result of earlier Indian ___.
Building Alliances • After the Yemassee War, SC and the resident Native Americans were at peace. • However, trouble would begin in 1729 when French fur traders pushed the Cherokee for a treaty to trap on their lands • The French were a major enemy of the British. • The British in 1730 began negotiations for their own treaty with the Cherokee. • The Cherokee signed a letter of friendship with the British. • The Indians thought they were now allies and could count on the British to fight with them. • The British thought that the Indians were now subjects of the King, and would now have to follow the King’s laws.
A Lasting Peace??? Well… • For almost 30 years the peace lasted • The British did not take any of the Indians’ land in the west. • The British even negotiated fairly so they could build 4 forts to protect them from the French and Spanish. • 1755, the British and Cherokee sign the _____________________. • The Cherokee agreed to recognize all British _____ as their leaders and turn over all of their lands. • The British promised to stop the sale of ____, provide more Indian traders, and guarantee fairer _____ and better goods. • In Indian Giver fashion, the British failed to follow through.
War with the Cherokee • The British Governor Lyttelton could not control the Indian traders and slowly the relationship fell apart. • Instead of meeting with the Cherokee, Lyttleton embargoed the Indians, stopping all trade, in an attempt to force them to cooperate. • In reaction, 1759 the Cherokee started attacking the Western settlements. • 31 chiefs had gone to negotiate peace were held hostage at Fort Prince George. • The Indians attacked the fort. • For revenge the British killed all the hostages.
Cherokees at War • The Cherokee killed hundreds of the Uppers. • A benefit of being a royal colony, 1200 British troops were sent to fight. • They burned the Cherokee villages and crops, also killing the women and children. • 1760, 1600 more troops were sent, they drove the Cherokee into the mountains. • This brought the fighting to an end.
The Treaty of Augusta • 10 November 1763, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Catawba, and Choctaw signed the Treaty of Augusta. • In exchange for a small reserve of land near Rock Hill, the Indians agreed to stop fighting and give up much of their land. • Also a border line was to be drawn so that no whites could settle in the West. • Proclamation of 1763 enforced this agreement.
Paradise Lost • All the problems could have been avoided had the British not failed to live up to their agreements. • Cause by failure to negotiate fair prices, and ideas of land ownership. • Each side had lost trust in the other. It’s Your Turn! • What could have been done to avoid the bloodshed?
A Changing Colony The first _____ in the Americas were not slaves but Spanish explorers. The First permanent Africans in the North America were indentured ____. Later Africans were brought as indentured servants but eventually were held in s_____, because Indian ______ had not worked out.
Slavery in South Carolina • Slavery in SC was different • The first slaves were brought from Barbados. • Large-scale slavery began in 1690s when economic success started. • By 1700 there were a few thousand but, and this is a BIG BUT, by 1770 there were more than 80,000. • The total population of SC at this time was only 130,000 • The slavery was so cruel that there were slave rebellions
The Stono Rebellion • The most famous of all slave revolts in SC. • Two causes • Cruelty • In 1738, a Spanish law offered freedom to any slave who escaped to ________. • This law gave good reason for slaves to revolt or runaway • Sixty slaves killed 20 white settlers • The state militia killed 40 slaves • Fearing future revolts the Assembly passed the slave code • Set penalties for cruel treatment • Put slaves under tighter control • These actions did not stop all revolts but made it more difficult
Education • Education was different for different groups • At first an educational system did not exist. • The original reason for an education was so people could read the Bible. • SC leaders believed it was the responsibility of the parents to educate. • So only ______ children were educated.
Free Schools??? Really??? • The first free schools in SC required the students to pay a tuition. • the only thing free about them was the land given for the schools to be built on. • However, 12 needy children were to be educated for free. • Even with the schools, many of the wealthy families sent there children to private schools. • Poor families were less likely to send children to school at all. • The parents were mostly illiterate and did not see the value of educating their children. • Also, farmers needed their children home for help. • The majority of the SC population would remain illiterate for most of the 1800s • And most of my students show strong signs of it!!!!!! • Many of the colonial attitudes toward education still exist in SC today!
Education for Blacks • Education was even less available for ______. • Most slave owners did not want their ______ educated • A slave who understood the concept of freedom may revolt or escape • A racist belief that also existed that Blacks were incapable of learning. • Some _______ organizations started educating slaves for the purpose of saving their souls.
A Growing Population • SC had one of the fastest growing populations of the British colonies. • But, and this is a BIG BUT, it was not capable of sustaining the population until 1770. • Cause being disease, Indian wars, infant mortality, and poor sanitation raised the killed rate. • No forms of modern medicine to combat diseases. • Children mortality rate was as high as 80 percent • ¼-½ of adults who lived to be 20 were dead before 40 • In some places death rates were higher than birth rates • The really BIG OL’ BUT was that the population only grew because more immigrants and slaves kept arriving, raising the population.