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Skeletal System. CHAPTER 6. Skeletal System. Human skeleton consists of 206 bones Serves as support ing framework of body Protects vital internal organs Important role in movement = attachments for muscles Reservoir for storing minerals Red bone marrow = blood cell formation.

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Skeletal System


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    1. Skeletal System CHAPTER 6

    2. Skeletal System • Human skeleton consists of 206 bones • Serves as supporting framework of body • Protects vital internal organs • Important role in movement = attachments for muscles • Reservoir for storing minerals • Red bone marrow = blood cell formation

    3. Bone Structure • Diaphysis • Main shaft-like portion of a long bone • Compact bone • Epiphysis • Located at each end of a long bone • Epiphyseal line • Separates diaphysis from epiphysis

    4. Bone Structure • Periosteum • Covers the surface of the long bone • Articular cartilage • Covers joint surfaces • Medullary (marrow) cavity • Contains yellow marrow

    5. Bone Structure • Spongy bone (trabeculae) • Also called cancellous bone • Red bone marrow • Site for blood cell production • Yellow marrow • Stores fat

    6. Bone Structure

    7. Bone Markings • Bone markings = specific features of bones • Enlargements that extend out from the bone • Openings within the bone • Hollow regions within the bone • Points of attachment for muscles and tendons • Points for joining one bone to another • Cavities and passage for nerves and blood vessels

    8. Bone Depressions • Concave areas or openings in a bone • Help form joints • Serve as points of attachment for muscle • Sulcus • Groove or depression in a bone • Example = fissure • Sinus • Opening or hollow space in a bone • Example = frontal sinus

    9. Bone Depressions • Fossa • Hollow or shallow concave depression in bone • Example = fossa of the iliac (hip) bone • Foramen • Hole within a bone for blood vessels or nerves to pass through • Example = Foramen magnum of the skull

    10. Cranial Bones • Cranium = bony skull • Envelops brain • Composed of eight bones • Immovable bones • Borders meet to form immovable joints • Immovable joints = sutures

    11. Cranial Bones

    12. Facial Bones • Two bones provide distinctive shape to face • Maxillae (upper jaw bones) • Mandible (lower jaw bone) • All facial bones connected by immovable joints (sutures) • One exception (mandible)

    13. Facial Bones

    14. Vertebral Bones • Form long axis of the body • Referred to as spinal column or backbone • 24 vertebrae + sacrum + coccyx • Offer protection to spinal cord

    15. Vertebral Bones • Cervical vertebrae • Vertebrae of the neck (cervic/o = neck) • Identified as C1 – C7 • Thoracic vertebrae • Vertebrae of the chest (thorac/o = chest) • Identified as T1 – T12 • Lumbar vertebrae • Vertebrae of lower back (lumb/o = lower back, loins) • Identified as L1-L5

    16. Vertebral Bones • Sacrum • Singular, triangular shaped bone • Resulted from fusion of five individual sacral bones in the child • Coccyx • Also called “tailbone” • Resulted from fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child

    17. Bones of the Thorax • True ribs (Ribs 1-7) • Attach to sternum in front and vertebrae in back • False ribs (Ribs 8-10) • Attach to vertebrae in back but attach to cartilage of 7th rib in front – not the sternum • Floating ribs (Ribs 11-12) • Attach to vertebrae in back • Completely free of attachment in front

    18. Bones of the Upper Extremities

    19. Pelvic Bones

    20. Bones of the Lower Extremities • Femur • Thigh bone • Patella • Knee bone or kneecap • Tibia • Larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones • Fibula • More slender of the two lower leg bones

    21. Bones of the Ankle and Foot • Ankle bones (Tarsals) • Calcaneus • Talus bone • Foot bones • Metatarsals • Phalanges

    22. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Skeletal System

    23. Osteomalacia • Pronounced • (oss-tee-oh-mah-LAY-she-ah) • Defined • Abnormal softening of the bones due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood • Which is necessary for bone mineralization

    24. Osteomyelitis • Pronounced • (oss-tee-oh-my-ell-EYE-tis) • Defined • A local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow • Resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood

    25. Osteoporosis • Pronounced • (oss-tee-oh-poh-ROW-sis) • Defined • Porous bones • Bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density

    26. Osteoporosis

    27. Ewing’s Sarcoma • Pronounced • (YOO-wings sar-KOH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys

    28. Osteogenic Sarcoma • Pronounced • (oss-tee-oh-JEN-ic sar-KOH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor arising from bone • Also known as osteosarcoma

    29. Osteochondroma • Pronounced • (oss-tee-oh-kon-DROH-mah) • Defined • Most common benign bone tumor • Most frequently involves the femur and tibia

    30. Paget’s Disease • Pronounced • (PAJ-ets dih-ZEEZ) • Defined • Nonmetabolic disease of the bone • Characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts • Bone is weak and prone to fractures

    31. Spinal Stenosis • Pronounced • (SPIGH-nal stin-OH-sis) • Defined • Narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina • Openings of the lumbar spinal canal • Causes pressure on nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramina

    32. Talipes Equinovarus • Pronounced • (TAL-ih-peez eh-kwine-oh-VAIR-us) • Defined • Clubfoot

    33. Talipes

    34. Abnormal Curvature of the Spine • Kyphosis • Outward curvature = humpback or hunchback • Lordosis • Inward curvature = swayback • Scoliosis • Lateral (sideward) curvature

    35. Abnormal Curvature of the Spine

    36. Fracture: Broken Bone • Closed fracture • Break in the bone but no open wound in skin • Simple fracture • Open fracture • Break in the bone, as well as an open wound in skin • Compound fracture

    37. Fracture: Broken Bone • Complete fracture • Break extends through the entire thickness of bone • Incomplete fracture • One side of bone is broken and one side of bone is bent considerably but not broken • Greenstick fracture

    38. Fracture: Broken Bone • Compression fracture • Caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other • Impacted fracture • Direct force causes bone to break • Forces broken end of smaller bone into broken end of larger bone

    39. Fracture: Broken Bone • Colle’s fracture • Break occurs at lower end of the radius • Within one inch of connecting with wrist bones • Hairline fracture • Minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment • Also known as a stress fracture

    40. Fracture: Broken Bone • Pathological fracture • Bone is weakened by a preexisting disease • Break is in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break • Treatment of fractures • Closed reduction • Open reduction

    41. DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Skeletal System

    42. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Bone scan • Intravenous injection of a radioisotope, which is absorbed by bone tissue • Followed by scanning of the skeleton approximately three hours later to detect areas where the bone absorbs the isotope

    43. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Bone marrow aspiration • Removal of a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle • Specimen is examined under a microscope • Sterile technique

    44. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Noninvasive procedures for evaluating bone density • Dual Photon Absorptiometry • Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry