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NEEDS. DESIGN. EVALUATE. IMPLEMENT. Design Process--Representing. September 11, 2007 Turn in your Conceptual Map assignment. Idea Commercials. Materials for projection by midnight tonight! Email to [cs160] in Subject line Presented in discussion section tomorrow

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design process representing





Design Process--Representing

September 11, 2007

Turn in your Conceptual Map assignment

idea commercials
Idea Commercials
  • Materials for projection by midnight tonight!
    • Email to
    • [cs160] in Subject line
  • Presented in discussion section tomorrow
    • I’m planning to attend
facebook application review
facebook application review
  • Resources for finding interesting applications
  • Social software / facebook followup
  • Understanding users, a few more techniques
    • Diary study
    • Experience Sampling Method
    • Personas
  • Design, representing ideas
    • Scenarios
    • Storyboard
    • Role-playing
social software followup
Social software followup
  • Wikipedia
    • How many people use Wikipedia?
    • How many people have contributed to Wikipedia?
  • Demonstration of “social leveraging”
  • Why does Wikipedia work?
virtual economy
Virtual economy
  • Point system, currency
    • Rewards for valued activities
    • Amount of “interaction time”
  • Transform points  social status
    • Visible markers
    • Acknowledge leaders
    • Exploit scarcity
  • Finding right balance of money supply
social networking
Social networking
  • MySpace
    • 200M users
    • Focuses on music interests
  • facebook
    • 39M users
    • Photo sharing
  • LinkedIn
    • 14M users
    • Oriented toward professional networking, hiring
  • Viral invitations, interoperability
about the facebook platform
About the facebook platform
  • After 3 months
    • 3,261 applications vetted by facebook
    • 46 applications attracted > 1M installs
  • Platform is still evolving
    • We may experience change along the way
  • Server support
facebook project ideas
facebook project ideas
  • Photos
  • Games
  • Shared Interests
  • Productivity
  • Location sharing
  • Finding employment / grad school
  • Mashups
meta comment
  • Mostly describing a variety of tools
    • Exercised a few in assignments
    • Will need to pick appropriate ones to apply in group project
  • Grasp of tools tested in midterm
  • Group project pulls threads of class together
additional observation tools
Additional observation tools
  • Diary study
  • Experience Sampling Method
  • Personas
diary study
Diary study
  • Asking people to keep a diary of their interactions with a computer system, any significant events or problems during their use of a system, or other aspects of their working life
    • Record the date and time of an event
    • Where they are
    • Information about the event of significance
    • Ratings about how they feel, etc.
diary study variations
Diary study variations
  • Vocally recording diary entries
    • Give them recording device (iPod + mic)
    • Attach list of questions to device
  • Use cell phone to call recording service to capture entries
why use a diary study
Why use a diary study?
  • For situations that don’t afford direct observation
    • Occur infrequently
    • In dispersed settings
    • Additional observers awkward
  • Collects data from actual experience
  • Collecting data over longer time span
  • Example: When do you think of communicating with your family?
diary study constraints
Diary study constraints
  • Requires high incentives for participants
    • Reminder prompts
    • Reward per entry
  • Self-reporting mechanism
  • Access to recording instrument
  • Palen & Salzman, “Voice-mail diary studies for naturalistic data capture under mobile conditions”
experience sampling method esm
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
  • Getting user reactions in the moment
  • Also known as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA)
  • From psychology
  • Participant asked to carry “beeper”
  • When beeper activates
    • Fill out short survey (using device)
      • User’s context
      • Reaction to stimulus
  • Programmed alerts at “random” times
    • Several times / day over a week
    • Scope time intervals appropriately (i.e., awake hours)
  • Large enough users, samples  model
esm resources
ESM resources
  • Open source tool for ESM
  • Kellogg et al., “I’d be overwhelmed, but it’s just one more thing to do”
why use esm
Why use ESM?
  • “Ecological validity” of data
    • Better than retrospective self-report
  • Deals with mobile activities (ubicomp)
  • Captures reactions in context
    • Spatial
    • Situational
    • Temporal
  • Collecting data over longer time span (beyond a single session or observation)
  • Example: When do you answer cell phone?
esm constraints
ESM constraints
  • It is interruptive
    • Strategy for handling “non-response”
  • Survey must be extremely quick to fill out
    • Less than 1 minute

Archetypal users that represent the needs of larger groups of users, in terms of their goals and personal characteristics

  • Representing user research
  • Guide vision and design
  • Popularized by Alan Cooper
    • The Inmates are Running the Asylum
creating personas
Creating personas
  • Name
  • Demographic info
  • Picture
  • Paragraph descriptions
    • User motivations
    • Goals
    • Expectations
    • Personality
  • Imaginary but precise, specific but stereotyped

course scheduler example persona24
Course Scheduler example persona

Thanks to Prof. Marti Hearst

remember jim
Remember Jim?
  • What were his good attributes?
    • Great looks
    • Witty stories
    • Good listening skills
personas anecdotes
Personas anecdotes
  • Sun Microsystems life-size cutouts of real customers
    • Sun’s customers otherwise “remote”
    • Get to know the customer
  • “Customer” cutouts became jokes
  • One customer actually visited in person!
the transformation of kimberly washington
The Transformation of Kimberly Washington
  • A persona for the development team
  • Kimberly began her persona life…
    • Late 30s, master’s degree in technical discipline
    • Plump, African American
    • Engineers were not interested
  • Kimberly’s persona was transformed…
    • Early 20s, Bachelor's degree in humanities
    • Slender, white, blonde
  • Designing for yourself  designing for your fantasy

Thanks to Michael Muller, IBM Research

design representing ideas
Design, Representing Ideas
  • Scenarios
  • Storyboards
  • Role-playing
  • Providing context for use (narrative)
    • Sometime referred to as “use cases”
  • Narrative description of:
    • User(s)
    • Resources (tools, information, people)
    • Goal
    • Circumstances
    • Time interval
gas pumping scenario
Gas-pumping scenario
  • User(s)
    • Driver, passenger
  • Resources (tools, information, people)
    • Car, pump, currency, gas station attendant
  • Goal
    • Fill up car with appropriate gas
  • Circumstances
    • Day / night, sunny / rainy, leisurely / hurried
  • Time interval
    • As quickly as possible
  • Series of frames depicting key steps in reaching a goal
    • Mechanically, can use pin board for easy rearrangement / editing
  • Describe the interaction in context
    • Show user in at least 1st frame (establishing shot)
    • User and the environment
    • User and the system
that sounds like comics
That sounds like comics

OK/Cancel February 3, 2006,

the value of comics
The value of comics
  • Juxtaposed pictorial images in a deliberate sequence; “sequential art”
    • Abstraction allows personal projection into the scene
    • Our sense of closure fills in the missing details
testing storyboards with users
Testing storyboards with users
  • Using storyboards to get input from users, other stakeholders
  • Check understanding of process that users go through
    • Observe user reaction
    • Debrief users
  • Good reference point for design process
storyboarding hints
Storyboarding hints
  • Keep it quick
  • Cleverly re-use cards and copying
    • Draw large window
    • Draw components on cards
    • Rearrange cards, copy
  • Allows trying out ideas without writing any code
storyboarding exercise
Storyboarding exercise
  • Storyboard the process of adding a cameraphone picture to facebook photos
    • Last time focused on drawing
    • This time, focused on designing and expressing ideas
    • What are the steps? Features?
    • 15 minutes
reflecting on storyboarding
Reflecting on storyboarding
  • Features?
    • Email, text, designated email
  • Steps?
role playing
  • Enacting scenarios, storyboards
  • Recording on video
    • Presentations
    • Publicity
  • Video records (showing up on YouTube)
    • Microsoft Surfaces (2007)
    • Apple Knowledge Navigator (1987)
  • Transformation of abstract ideas and concepts into physical experiences
  • Imagining the product already exists
    • Act as if it exists
    • In the context of how you would use it
    • Involving entire body in enacting usage
  • Oulasvirta et al., “Understanding contexts by being there: Case studies in bodystorming”
assignment due sept 13
Assignment (Due Sept. 13)
  • Forming project teams (4 people)
    • Submit list of names + email in group (1 per group)


    • Name, email, plus list of interests to help form group
      • Especially important to participate in section
  • Visually annotated idea list
next time
Next time
  • Readings
    • Norman, DOET, Chapter 2
    • First Principles of Interaction Design (from AskTog)