Design Process • Discovery (ch4) • Questionnaires • RequirementsDocument • Design (ch5) • Personas • Paper Prototypes • Interpretation (ch4) • Stakeholder Profiles • Use Cases
Conceptual Design – Personas • Personas are archetypes of actual users, defined by the user’s goals and attributes. “Personas are derived from patterns observed during interviews with and observations of users and potential user (and sometimes customers) of a product” (Cooper & Reimann, 2003, 67)
Conceptual Design – Personas • A persona is created by identifying the primary stakeholder and creating an identity based on the stakeholder profiles and other collection activities such as interviews and surveys. • A persona is a detailed description complete with as many personally identifying attributes as necessary to make it come to life.
Conceptual Design – Personas Personas should be a strict reflection of the information derived from the collection activities. • If you cannot point to a direct one-to-one relation with an observed user behavior, then that particular persona characteristic is either unnecessary or, more important, erroneous and will lead to incorrect design decisions.
Conceptual Design – Personas • Advantages of personas: • They are quick and easy to create. • They provide a consistent model for all team members. • They are easy to use with other design methods. • They make the user real in the mind of the designer. • Disadvantages of personas: • They can be difficult to create if the target audience is international. • Having too many personas will make the work difficult. • There is a risk of incorporating unsupported designer assumptions.
Example Persona The interface is an interface to a poetry journal website called Circumference that specializes in translation
Physical Design • The physical design involves: • What it will look like • What components it will require • How the screens will be laid out • We use the following tools during this phase: • Low-fidelity prototypes • Evaluations • Wireframes • Functional prototypes
Physical Design - Low-fidelity prototypes • Nielsen distinguishes between two types of prototypes • Horizontal • Vertical
Physical Design - Low-fidelity prototypes • The three main criteria for low-fidelity prototypes: • Easy and inexpensive to make. • Flexible enough to be constantly changed and rearranged. • Complete enough to yield useful feedback about specific design questions.
Activity: MAKE A PAPER PROTOTYPE People are more comfortable criticizing paper prototypes • You will have to make some decisions before you begin: • What feedback do you need at this point in the design process? • How much of the design should you prototype? • Should you cover all of the areas but without great detail (breadth vs. depth)? • Should you cover one area in great detail? • These questions will help you to define the scope of the prototype and focus on what you want to accomplish
Physical Design - Low-fidelity prototypes • Advantages of paper prototypes: • They can be used early and often. • They are inexpensive and easy to create. • They make design ideas visual. • No special knowledge is required; all team members can create them. • Disadvantage of paper prototypes: • They are not interactive. • They cannot be used to calculate response timings. • They do not deal with interface issues such as color or font size.
Conceptual Design – Scenarios, Flowcharts, and Cognitive Walkthroughs • Scenarios • A description of a typical task • It describes • The basic goal • The conditions that exist at the beginning of the task • The activities in which the persona will engage • The outcomes of those activities Scenarios afford a rich picture of the user’s tasks
ACTIVITY: EVALUATE YOUR PROTOTYPE • Cognitive walkthrough - the evaluator follows the various scenarios using the flowcharts or the low-fidelity prototypes • The evaluator takes the part of the primary stakeholder and tries to accomplish that stakeholder’s various tasks
Evaluation Begin evaluations early in the design process. • Evaluation is an integral part of the development process and can take the form of an informal walkthrough or a more structured heuristic evaluation. • Formal usability testing can begin once a prototype has been developed. • Discuss some of the benefits of starting the evaluation process early in the design phase