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MH-22: War in the Middle East. Violence Across the Spectrum of Conflict. Impact of Advanced Weapons Technology. Impact of Advanced Weapons Technology : Regional conflicts more violent & destructive Examples of advanced weapons applied in regional wars: Electronic & computer techniques

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mh 22 war in the middle east

MH-22: War in the Middle East

Violence Across the Spectrum of Conflict

impact of advanced weapons technology
Impact of Advanced Weapons Technology
  • Impact of Advanced Weapons Technology:
    • Regional conflicts more violent & destructive
  • Examples of advanced weapons applied in regional wars:
    • Electronic & computer techniques
    • Precision guided munitions (enhanced target precision)
    • Medium range ballistic missiles
    • Chemical agents (Iran-Iraq war)
  • US & USSR weapons & tech advances provided to clients:
    • Paid for by vast ME oil reserves (hence motive to protect)
    • Also availed practical arms laboratory for testing US & Soviet equipment (vicarious Superpower bragging rights)
    • Weapons tested under actual combat & Battle conditions
      • Such as Arab-Israeli Wars or USSR-Afghanistan War (US support rebels)
violence across the spectrum of conflict
Violence Across the Spectrum of Conflict
  • Middle East Wars: waged throughout the Cold war
    • At levels of violence across full spectrum of conflict=>
    • Another growing phenomenon:
    • Conflicts & wars tended to occur =>
      • With greater frequency & higher levels of violence
  • Especially true in the M.E. & SW Asia regions:
    • Most significant conflicts were:
      • Arab-Israeli Wars (which continue at various levels)
      • Iran-Iraq War
      • Afghanistan War (or the Soviet’s Vietnam)
overview of major me sw asia conflicts
Overview of Major ME & SW Asia Conflicts
  • First examine major conflicts of Middle East since 1948
  • Begin with the History of Arab-Israeli conflicts
arab israeli wars
Arab-Israeli Wars
  • Long history of tension & conflict between both sides
    • Continues to this day- particularly over what?
  • Following WWII=> all this came to a head
    • The British departed (abandoned) Palestine
    • UN proposed dividing Palestine into two states
      • A partitioned Palestine with an Arab & Jewish state
    • Arabs objected & tensions soon escalated
    • Then the Israelis declared establishment of an independent state
  • Arab rejection to prospect of Israeli state took form in political & military resistance
    • Following UN partition of Palestine:
      • Palestinians especially conducted terror & insurgencies
    • Finally all out conventional war with all ME Arab states


1948 middle east war
1948 Middle East War
  • AKA “War of Independence” to Israelis
    • Begins immediately following proclamation of State of Israel
    • (And soon after US recognition)
  • Both acts prompt immediate condemnation by Arabs
    • Egyptian A/C strike Tel Aviv
    • Followed soon after by ground attacks by Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, & Saudi Arabia
  • But Arab attacks are uncoordinated, sporadic, and without unity of command
israeli counterattack
Israeli Counterattack
  • Lack of coordination & operational shortfalls take toll on Arab armies
    • Allowed Israeli militias time to regroup & counterattack
  • After 4 weeks of fighting a better coordinated though outnumbered Israeli army counterattacks
    • Soon pushed Arabs back from initial gains and even into the loss column
    • Brave but poorly led Arab army forced to withdraw
  • UN coordinated Cease fire lines & Armistice Agreement
    • Established in 1949
1956 sues crisis
1956 Sues Crisis
  • 8 years later, following escalating tensions, Nasser came to power in Egypt
    • Aim: unite Arabs under his leadership
    • Modernize & reinvigorate Egyptian Armed Forces
  • Sought Soviet support following West rejection to help
  • Nasser would reach modernization goal
    • CZ provided intermediary link for Soviet support
    • Then Nasser nationalized Suez Canal to pay for his military modernization expenses
    • Nasser’s moves upset potential ME balance of power
  • Israel, concerned about Soviet support to Egypt, joined forces with an outraged Britain & France
preemptive attack
Preemptive Attack
  • Britain & France conspired with Israel to attack Egypt
    • Israel agreed to attack on ground across Sinai desert
    • Plan: Britain & France will issue demarche’ to both sides to stay 10 mile apart from Suez canal
    • Otherwise they will intervene to secure Suez Canal
      • (ALCON expected Egypt to reject this ultimatum)
  • 28 Oct 1956: Israel attacked across Sinai with impressive results
    • Conducted well planned & coordinated attack
    • Achieved complete operational & tactical surprise
    • Soon achieved all tactical objectives
  • Britain & France conduct air strikes, airborne & amphibious landings in & around Suez
    • But soon forced to back down by US (Ike) & USSR pressure=> marked end of British influence in ME
  • Israeli lessons learned:
    • Corrected C3 & armor-infantry integration problems for next time
six day war opening moves
Six Day War- Opening Moves
  • The Next Time occurred a decade later:
    • Soviet false intelligence prompts Arabs to mobilize
    • Nasser’s rhetoric and aggressive actions in Sinai spur Israeli concerns
    • Jordan joined the anti-Israel alliance already in place between Egypt and Syria
    • Nasser ordered UN peace keepers out of Sinai
    • Then Egypt blockaded Straits of Tiran
  • Israel concluded attack was imminent & mobilized
    • Launched preemptive strike against Egyptian front
operation moked
Operation Moked
  • June 5, 1967: Israeli air force strike Egyptian airfields & eliminate most of Egypt's air force
    • Then do the same to Jordan’s & Syria’s
  • Most important operation of the war- why?
    • Eliminated Arab ability to mobilize its ?__________ & ?________ forces
    • Israel now has air superiority (decisive)
  • 7 June: Israeli tanks attack Egypt’s
    • Egyptian forces defeated & forced to withdraw from Sinai
jordan salient the golan heights
Jordan Salient & the Golan Heights
  • Jordan’s forces put up good fight in their western salient
    • But Jerusalem is soon taken by Israelis
    • Jordan soon defeated by superior Israeli army & is forced to surrender on 7th
  • Syrian forces are driven from Golan Heights
    • Withdraw but find themselves vulnerable to Israeli destruction
    • Surrender on 10 June 1967
  • Results: Israel gains most territory
    • Gain military reputation as “invincible”
    • Arabs humiliated by defeat in six days
    • Revert to raids into Israel & arty strikes
    • Nasser conducts “War of Attrition”
yom kippur war oct 1973
Yom Kippur War – Oct 1973
  • Anwar Sadat succeeds Nasser as President of Egypt
    • Embarks on mission to upgrade Army’s leadership & modernize its equipment
      • Especially upgrade air defense systems with Soviet SAMs
    • Aim: demonstrate to world that Israel was notinvincible
  • Sadat coordinated with Syrians to attack simultaneously with Egyptians – reason?
    • Confront IDF with ?____________________ war from both North & South
  • Main obstacle Egyptian attack to recover Sinai
    • 25 meter high sand dunes on east side of Suez Canal
    • Manned along entire Bar Lev defense line by 500 IDF
    • Consisting of small fortifications every 10-12 KM
  • On Saturday 6 Oct 1973 (Yom Kippur) they attacked
    • Egyptians along entire Bar Lev Line front 70K troops vs. 500
    • Syrians attack in the North with 1500 Tanks against 157
yom kippur war egyptian front
Yom Kippur War- Egyptian Front
  • Israelis caught by complete strategic & tactical surprise
    • Egypt penetrates 10-12 KM east of Canal (high pressure hoses)
    • IDF aircraft are shot down by SAMs & IDF tanks are destroyed by anti-tankRPG-7s & saggers(3K meters)
  • Oct 14: Egypt launches 6 thrusts of 2000 tanks (lose 200)
    • But Egypt's penetration of 15 KM leaves troops outside air defense zone & vulnerable to IDF aircraft
  • Oct 15: re-supplied by US, IDF (MG Sharon’s Division) cross canal north of Bitter Lakes
    • Exploit gap between 2nd & 3rd Army & cut off 3rd Army from rear & destroy Egypt's air defenses
golan heights
Golan Heights
  • Syrian’s attack in Golan Heights cued to Egyptians
    • Syrians able to capture IDF Intel collection site on Mt. Hermon
  • 11 Oct: IDF are reinforced and begin to push Syrians back
    • Syrians fall back behind 1967 Cease-Fire Line
  • 13 Oct: IDF destroy Iraqi tank brigade & break Syrian line
    • Sayeret Matkal SOF recapture Mount Hermon after heavy causalities by 22 Oct & come in sight (& heavy arty) of Damascus: - then halt
operation gazelle 15 23 oct 1973
Operation Gazelle 15-23 Oct 1973
  • Sharon clears pass through Egyptians to east side of canal
    • Establishes bridgehead and builds bridge over canal to west side
    • Adan & Morgan’s divisions follow - 3rd Egyptian army trapped
  • UN & Superpowers call for cease fire - finally agreed to
    • IDF wins tactical & operational victory but Sadat also wins- why?
iraqi initial gains 1980
Iraqi Initial Gains- 1980
  • Saddam Hussein attempted to take advantage of Iran’s political chaos & debilitated army following their 1979 revolution
  • Aim: curtail growing Iranian Shi’ite Islamic fundamentalism
    • Feared potential influence on his own Iraqi majority Shi’ites
    • Seized key geographic areas in Iran
    • Extended Iraqi influence into PG
  • His modernized army attacked along a broad front
    • 1700 tanks, 1800 APCs, 340 A/C
    • Made only nominal gains along entire 1100 KM border into Iran
  • War soon bogged down into stalemate ala WWI style
    • Iran launched numerous frontal attacks killing almost a million
      • Children, women & old men provided mine clearance with their bodies
  • Saddam tried to disengage but Iran pressed on
    • War dragged on for 8 years & only ended when Iran felt threatened by US
  • US became directly involved during “tanker wars” in PG
    • Conducted direct actions against Iran staging platforms & mine layers
  • War demonstrated ruthlessness of Saddam & insanity of Iran religious zealots
    • Human wave assaults of women & children against heavy weapons, mines, & gas
afghanistan war 1978 1988
Afghanistan War 1978-1988
  • April 1978 Muhammad Daoud was overthrown in Soviet supported coup & PRA seized control
    • Situation deteriorated into chaos as many factions resisted new government
    • Soviets placed Babrak Karmal in power but insurgency continued to grow worse
    • 1986 Soviets replaced Karmal with Najibullah
  • Soviets controlled most urban centers
    • Afghan Mujahedeencontrolled the mountains
  • Soviets reinforced initial SOF with large conventional forces & armored columns
    • Including tanks & heavy attack Hind Helos
    • Bomb Paki sanctuaries & LOCs- all to no avail
    • Like NVA, Afghans decide when, where, & how
  • CIA covertly supported insurgents from Pakistan with weapons & later Stingers
    • In time War bogged down into Soviet’s Vietnam
    • Political & economic problems at home ended it
cold war in retrospect assessment
Cold War in Retrospect- Assessment
  • Cold War (CW):
    • From end of WWII in 1945 to collapse of Soviet Union in 1991
    • Thru-out- greatest influence => Nuclear Weapons:
    • Shaped policy, strategy & force structures of both sides
    • Each technological advance generated reaction =>
      • Each side attempted to keep up with other =>
      • Promoted Arms Race & increased global tensions
  • Following Soviet acquisition of A-bomb (then Nukes)=>
    • US & USSR faced with possible escalation of any crisis
    • Result: must avoid direct confrontation=> (why?)
      • Avoid potential for ?__________ to ?__________ War
    • (From crisis =>low intensity => mid =>high => Thermo- ?____)
problem gw protracted war
Problem: GW & Protracted War
  • Advanced weapons & technology was used by both clients/allies
    • For most part => US & Soviets avoided escalations:
      • (The one very close exception?)
  • As for the other 160 conflicts below the High Intensity Conflict (HIC) threshold:
    • Asian Wars particularly hard for US: (Korea, Vietnam)
    • GW & protractedvs. American style conventionalwars
    • Totally different philosophy & doctrine towards war
    • (i.e. Clausewitzof Europe vs. Sun Tzuof China)
    • LBJ & Westmorelandvs.Mao, Ho Chi Minh & Giap

?_______ __________ ________

new challenges response
New Challenges & Response
  • USSR faired no better in Afghanistan for similar reasons:
    • In this case=> decentralized Islamic Fundamentalistsinsurgents
  • Terrorism bought new challenges, beginning in late’60s:
    • Response: elite SOF CT units(Israeli Sayeret Matkal commandos, Mossad)
    • GSG-9, SAS, Commando Hubert,
    • US: JSOTF, Delta & ST6
    • All demonstrated some success (known & unknown)
  • Chemical Agents also employed at various times:
    • By Soviets against Mujahedeen (early stages of war)
    • US (AgentOrange herbicidein RVN);
    • Also employed by 3rd world opponents
      • Iraq used Chemical agents against Kurds
      • (As poor man’s Nuke)
protracted war weapon advances
Protracted War & Weapon Advances
  • Cold War conflicts largely more protracted:
    • Korea (fighting while negotiating - last 2 years of war)
      • Vietnam (US: 1961-73); Iran-Iraq (‘80-88);
    • Soviets in Afghanistan (‘79-89);
    • Major exceptions? => Israel-Arab wars (‘56, ‘67, ‘73)
      • But still unsettled to this day – no real peace!
  • Weapons technology advances:
    • Vietnam: Helo, initial precision guided munitions
    • Yom Kippur war: further weapon advances/refinements
    • Afghanistan: US SA-7 - air defense against USSR Helos
  • Other Technology & weapon advances included:
    • C3I: SATCOMM, Photo-Intelligence
    • A/C: U-2, MC-130 Blackbird, AC-130, CAS attack;
    • Computers, & advanced Logistics systems
cold war doctrine tactics training
Cold War Doctrine, Tactics, & Training
  • CW Battles proved truly 3 dimensional (air-ground-sea)
    • Air-Groundcoordination & interface increased
    • Air-mobile ops (Helo) => effectively employed
  • Israel (‘67 & ’73 Wars)=> offered superior example:
    • Effective & efficient force structure & C2
    • Superior doctrine, tactics, & training:
      • Outstanding SOF & Intelligence interface
      • Excellent INTELL network in M.E. (HUMINT)
      • Best VFRair to air combat capability in region
      • (At least until Top gunestablished)
  • Still=> technology had its limits (Strategic Air & Helos)
    • Vietnam & Afghanistan prime examples of these limits
  • No one concept or theory can accurately represent Cold Warera
  • Key Cold War changes include:
    • Refined Operational concepts & technology advances
  • Limited warfaremotives validated- to an extent:
    • US avoided direct conflict with the Soviets & conflict escalation to WW3
  • Limited warfaretheories invalidated:
    • Gradual escalation & strategy of attrition (Vietnam) didn’t work
    • Ability to precisely send right message to enemy=>
      • With hoped for appropriate response unrealistic (due in part to friction)
  • Spectrum of conflict expanded: (especially within LIC & terrorism)
  • Cold War was an era of significant innovation & change:
    • New tactical concepts & many weapon & technological advances
  • Result:
    • Violence intensified throughout all levels of conflict
    • Now apparently on whole new level (suicide bombers)