A Brief Introduction:Real Time & Multimedia Lab Real-time & MultiMedia LAB KyungHee University, Korea http://oslab.khu.ac.kr
Organization • Main Research Teams • Auto-CAMUS – Autonomic Middleware for Context-awareness • Knowledge Processing • USN – Ubiquitous Sensor Network • MAGi – Mobile Access to Grid Infrastructure • Ubiquitous Security
Main Research Teams MAGi Mobile Accessto Grid Infrastructure CAMUS Context-aware Middleware u-Sec Autonomic Computing Service Discovery & Delivery Knowledge Processing (Rule-based & Probabilistic Context Reasoning, Data Mining for User Preference Learning) Autonomic Sensing Agents Ubiquitous Sensor Network (Sensor Operating System, Routing Protocol, Communications)
Availability of expertise in fields of Distributed Systems, Real-time Systems Mobile Wireless Communications, WSN Knowledge Representation and Processing Artificial Intelligence Human Computer Interaction Biomedical Engineering … And The Professors … Prof. Tae Seong Kim Dr. Andrey V.Gavrilov. Dr. M. Kaykobad Dr. Yllias Chali
Virtual – IP Bridge: Integrating Heterogeneous Sensor Networks Over IP Based Wire/Wireless Networks Shu Lei Ubiquitous Sensor Networks Group Kyung Hee University, Korea
Content • Introduction and Motivation • Related Work • Communication Paradigm of Sensor Networks • Major Design Principle • Key Idea of Virtual – IP Bridge • Architecture of Virtual – IP Bridge • Packet Translation Algorithms • An Example: G-IP Approach • Integration of Different Sensor Networks • Comparison with Related Work • Future Research Trend • Publications
Introduction • Wireless sensor networks cannot have meaningful work without connecting with TCP/IP based network, such as Internet. • Furthermore, in Next Generation Network paradigm all kinds of heterogeneous wireless networks and IP based Internet should be integrated into one network to provide ubiquitous services for users. • We analyze all existing related research work, then based on the analysis result we present the basic design principle and key idea for connecting sensor networks with TCP/IP network.
Motivation for Virtual – IP Bridge • Heterogeneous sensor networks may physically locate in different places • Heterogeneous sensor networks may use totally different routing protocols for their special applications • However, sometimes we want to integrate these sensor networks into one virtual sensor networks to provide comprehensive services • Therefore, we need a uniform and easy solution to overcome the heterogeneity in different sensor networks Virtual – IP Bridge
IBM Zurich Research Lab Sensor Network Overlay IP Based Networks Sensor networks protocol stack is deployed over the TCP/IP and each Internet host is considered as a virtual sensor node Assumption: only physically located in different locations but still use the same routing protocol Advantage: easy to integrate into one virtual sensor networks Drawback: lose the consistency with IP based working model of NGN paradigm brings more protocol header overhead to TCP/IP network A A A Virtual Sensor Networks T T T N N N M Transport Transport Network Network MAC MAC IP Based Networks Sensor network Internet Gateway Node Virtual Node Sensor Networks C Sensor Networks A Sensor Networks B Related Work (1/5)
TCP/IP overlay sensor networks Implement IP protocol stack on sensor nodes Advantage: Internet host can directly send commands to some particular nodes in sensor networks via IP address. Drawback: only can be deployed on some sensor nodes which have enough processing capability A A A TCP/UDP T TCP/UDP IP IP N T MAC M N M Sensor network Internet Gateway Host IP Addressable Node Related Work (2/5) Virtual Sensor Networks IP Based Networks Sensor Networks C Sensor Networks A Sensor Networks B
Delay Tolerant Network A Bundle Layer is deployed in both TCP/IP network and non-TCP/IP network protocol stacks to store and forward packets Advantage: very easy to integrate with different heterogeneous wireless networks by deploying this Bundler Layer into their protocol stacks. Drawback: comes from the deployment of Bundle Layer into existing protocols, which is a cost consuming job. Virtual Sensor Networks IP Based Networks Sensor Networks C Sensor Networks A Sensor Networks B Application Application Application Bundle Bundle Bundle T T Transport Transport N N Network Network M M MAC MAC Sensor network Internet DTN Gateway Node Host Related Work (3/5)
Application-level Gateway Different protocols in both networks are translated in the application layer Advantage: the communication protocol used in the sensor networks may be chosen freely. Drawback : Internet users cannot directly access any special sensor node. ZigBee Gateway Follows This Approach Virtual Sensor Networks IP Based Networks Sensor Networks C Sensor Networks A Sensor Networks B Application Application A A T T TCP/UDP TCP/UDP IP IP N N M MAC MAC M Sensor network Internet Gateway Node Host Related Work (4/5)
Related Work (5/5): ZigBee Gateway The IP stack is terminated at the Gateway as is the ZigBee Stack. The Gateway provides translation between the respective stacks
Communication Paradigm of Sensor Networks • Node-centric • every node is labeled with some names and routing is performed based on this names • Data-centric • try to make a network answer “Give me data that satisfies a certain condition” • Position-centric • uses positions of nodes as a primary means of address and route packets
What Sort of Connectivity? • Gateways and Bridges are two different ways to provide connectivity. • Gateways provide a more full featured connectivity and allow a greater diversity of devices and applications to connect the ubiquitous sensor networks. • Bridges are much simpler than Gateways and hence would be a lower cost to the user but serve a smaller application space.
Major Design Principle • Consistency: The new approach should be IPv6 based, because it should have the consistency with the working paradigm of Next Generation Network. • Transparency: By using IP based approach, non-system-designer users should be able to use services provided by sensor networks without knowing that “these services are provided by sensor networks.” • Energy efficiency: Sensor networks should be able to freely choose routing protocol to optimize energy efficiency and performance. • Direct accessibility: Some sensor nodes should be able to be accessed and operated by Internet users directly by using IP address to identify them from others.
Major Design Principle • No overlay approach: Because both of TCP/IP overlay sensor networks and or sensor networks overlay TCP/IP require modification on protocol stacks. • Easy integration between different sensor networks: Several locating in different place’s sensor networks should be easily integrated into one virtual sensor networks based on IP addresses. • Taking the advantage of knowing sensor node’s label (ID) or location address: Because once we can know the ID or location address of data source node it is very easy to build up the routing path between data source and gateway. • Data-Centric cannot provide the consistency with Internet working module
Application A Node ID / Location address & IP Address Mapping Layer T TCP/UDP IP IP N N M MAC MAC M Sensor network Internet V-IP Bridge Node Host Key Idea of Virtual – IP Bridge • Basing on Node-Centric or Location-Centric communication paradigm, mapping the node label (ID) or location address with IP address in Bridge. • The IP address will not be physically deployed on sensor node, but just store in bridge as a virtual IP address for Internet users.
Autonomic-CAMUS Intelligent Gateway A-CAMUS Enterprise API Context Deliver Layer Wireless Network Applications Knowledge Processing Layer Wireless Network Server, Proxy, and Database Feature Extraction Layer Heterogeneous Protocol Conversions Ubiquitous Sensor Networks IP Based Networks Integrate Different Heterogeneous Sensor Networks Into One Virtual Sensor Networks V – IP Bridge Ubiquitous Sensor Networks Application Layer ZigBee Bluetooth LEACH CODE Transport Layer Network Layer Sensor OS Physical and MAC Layers Sensor Nodes Where is V– IP Bridge?
Architecture of Virtual – IP Bridge TCP/IP Network User IP Sensor IP/Bridge IP Q/O Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command T->S Packet Translation S->T Packet Translation IPv6 Address Data Information Based Discovery IP Address Based Discovery Original T->S Packet Created T-> S Packet Data Information IPv6 Address Node ID / Location Address Node ID / Location Address Node ID / Location Based Discovery Bridge IP Sensor ID/Location Bridge ID User IP Sensor ID/Location Bridge ID D/A Q/O D/A Data / Acknowledgement Data / Acknowledgement Query Command / Operation Command Sensor Networks
Solve Bottleneck Problem TCP/IP Network User IP Sensor IP/Bridge IP Q/O Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command Buffer Buffer T->S Packet Translation T->S Packet Translation S->T Packet Translation S->T Packet Translation Multiple Processes Multiple Processes Buffer Buffer Bridge IP Sensor ID/Location Bridge ID User IP Bridge ID Sensor ID/Location D/A D/A Q/O Data / Acknowledgement Query Command / Operation Command Data / Acknowledgement Sensor Networks
Packets are send from TCP/IP Network to Sensor Networks IP Address Based Discovery Data Information Based Discovery T->S: TCP/IP Network to Sensor Networks Receive Original T->S Packet Packet Type Analysis Query Packet Operation or Query? Operation Packet Data Information Based Discovery IP Based Discovery Create New T->S Packet Map and Backup Created New T->S Packet Send Created T->S Packet Packet Translation Workflow(1/2)
Packets are send from Sensor Networks to TCP/IP Network First find out corresponding created T->S packet Then, find out corresponding original T->S packet Analyze original T->S packet to get user’s IP address S->T: Sensor Networks to TCP/IP Network Receive Original S->T Packet Base On Source ID/ Location Address Find Out Corresponding Created T->S Packet Base On Created T->S Packet Find Out Corresponding Original T->S Packet Packet Header Analysis To Get User’s IP Address Create New S->T Packet Deleted Corresponding Original and Created T->S Packet Send Created S->T Packet Packet Translation Workflow(2/2)
Active Data Discovery and Registration After building up grids, each coordinator actively senses its local environment and registers the Data Information about the sensed data to gateway. Data Information & Grid ID & IP address Mapping After active data discovery and registration, gateway can have Data Information and gird ID for whole sensor networks. In this step, we assign global unique IP address for each grid in gateway. Location Centric Example: G-IP Approach(1/4) V-IP Bridge Sensor node Internet User Cluster head Forest Data source
Data Information Data Information Grid ID Consistency IP Address IP Address G-IP Approach TCP/IP Network Location Centric Example: Consistent with Internet (2/4) • We are trying to use IP address instead of Grid ID. • Because once we can hide the Grid ID from Internet users, we can have theconsistency between traditional IP based Internet and our G-IP approach.
Packet From Internet Source IP Target IP/Bridge IP Q/O Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command IP Address 1 Data Information 1 Grid-ID 1 Grid-ID 2 Data Information 2 IP Address 2 IP Address 3 Grid-ID 3 Data Information 3 ….. ….. ….. IP Address n-1 Grid-ID n-1 Data Information n-1 IP Address n Grid-ID n Data Information n Bridge ID Target ID Q/O Query Command / Operation Command Bridge ID Target ID Q/O Query Command / Operation Command Location Centric Example: Packet Translation (3/4) • Four different kinds packet translations that can be done by Grid ID – IP Address Mapping Layer. • Directly operate coordinator • Directly Query based on IP address • Directly Query based on Data Information • Complicated Data Request from several coordinators Grid ID & IP Address Mapping Packet To Sensor Network
Packet From Sensor Network Created T->S Packet Source IP Target IP/Bridge IP Q/O Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command Bridge ID Target ID Q/O Query Command / Operation Command Original T->S Packet Packet To Internet Bridge IP Source ID/Location Target IP Bridge ID D/A D/A Data / Acknowledgement Data / Acknowledgement Location Centric Example: Packet Translation (4/4) • Backup the mapping between created packets and original packets
Internet IP Based Routing Protocol T->S Packet Translation S->T Packet Translation Sensor Networks ZigBee Based Routing Protocol Node Centric Example: Integrate ZigBee with Internet • Support standard routing protocol of sensor networks: ZigBee • ZigBee is ID based routing protocol • ZigBee Network Layer: Node Centric Routing • Mapping ZigBee address with IP address
All-IP Based Wire/Wireless Networks Sensor networks C Sensor networks A Sensor networks B Integration of Different Sensor Networks • Several sensor networks deployed in different locations • These sensor networks may be using totally different routing protocols for their special applications • All of these sensor networks have gateways which have virtual IP addresses, it is very easy to integrate them into one virtual sensor networks.
Comparison with Related Work • Our solution can cover most of the benefits of related researches
Future Research Trend • Internetworking between Wireless Sensor Networks and Wired TCP/IP network towards Next Generation Network Paradigm • Integration of Heterogeneous Sensor Networks for building up comprehensive Virtual Sensor Networks over wired/wireless networks • Autonomic Routing Service and Query Service of Sensor Networks for Heterogeneous working situations and environments • Cross Layer Designfor Energy Efficient & Real Time Data Transmission over Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
Publications • Shu Lei, Yang Jie, Sungyoung Lee, "ETRI: A Dyanmic Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks", ETRSI 2004, Lisbon, Portugal, December 5-8, 2004 • Shu Lei, Wu Xiaoling, Yang Jie, Sungyoung Lee,"Maximizing System Value among Interested Packets While Satisfying Time and Energy Constraints", ICN'05, April 17-21, 2005 - Reunion Island, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE) • Shu Lei, Wu Xiaoling, Yang Jie, Sungyoung Lee, Jinsung Cho, "Two Ties Buffer and ETRI-PS Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks",GESTS International Transaction on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.6 and No.1, ISSN: 1738-6438, http://www.gests.org, May, 31, 2005, (Journal) • Wang Jin, Shu Lei, Young-Koo Lee, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, "A Load-balancing and Energy-aware Clustering Algorithm in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks", USN’05, Japan, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE) • Yang Jie, Shu Lei, Wu Xiaoling, Jinsung Cho, Sungyong Lee, “ETRI-QM: Reward Oriented Query Model for Wireless Sensor Networks“, EUC’05, Japan, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE) • Wu Xiaoling, Shu Lei, Yang Jie, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee,"Swarm Based Sensor Deployment Optimization in Ad hoc Sensor Networks ", ICESS’05, Xi’an, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE) • Xu Hui, Jeon Man Woo, Shu Lei, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Localized Energy-Aware Broadcast Protocol in Wireless Network with Directional Antenna", ICESS’05, Xi’an, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE) • Shu Lei,Wang Jin, Xu Hui, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Connecting Sensor Networks with TCP/IP Network”, IWSN’06, Harbin, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE) • Wu Xiaoling, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Deployment Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization”, IWSN’06, Harbin, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE) • Shu Lei, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Integrating Wireless Sensor With All IP Based Internet for Next Generation”, GWN 2005, KAIST, Daejeon, Korea.