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A Brief Introduction: Real Time & Multimedia Lab Real-time & MultiMedia LAB KyungHee University, Korea http://oslab.khu.ac.kr Organization Main Research Teams Auto-CAMUS – Autonomic Middleware for Context-awareness Knowledge Processing USN – Ubiquitous Sensor Network

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a brief introduction real time multimedia lab

A Brief Introduction:Real Time & Multimedia Lab

Real-time & MultiMedia LAB

KyungHee University, Korea

http://oslab.khu.ac.kr

organization
Organization
  • Main Research Teams
      • Auto-CAMUS – Autonomic Middleware for Context-awareness
      • Knowledge Processing
      • USN – Ubiquitous Sensor Network
      • MAGi – Mobile Access to Grid Infrastructure
      • Ubiquitous Security
main research teams
Main Research Teams

MAGi

Mobile Accessto

Grid Infrastructure

CAMUS

Context-aware Middleware

u-Sec

Autonomic

Computing

Service Discovery

& Delivery

Knowledge Processing

(Rule-based & Probabilistic

Context Reasoning,

Data Mining for

User Preference Learning)

Autonomic Sensing Agents

Ubiquitous Sensor Network

(Sensor Operating System, Routing Protocol, Communications)

and the professors
Availability of expertise in fields of

Distributed Systems, Real-time Systems

Mobile Wireless Communications, WSN

Knowledge Representation and Processing

Artificial Intelligence

Human Computer Interaction

Biomedical Engineering

… And The Professors …

Prof.

Tae Seong Kim

Dr. Andrey V.Gavrilov.

Dr. M. Kaykobad

Dr. Yllias Chali

virtual ip bridge integrating heterogeneous sensor networks over ip based wire wireless networks

Virtual – IP Bridge: Integrating Heterogeneous Sensor Networks Over IP Based Wire/Wireless Networks

Shu Lei

Ubiquitous Sensor Networks Group

Kyung Hee University, Korea

content
Content
  • Introduction and Motivation
  • Related Work
  • Communication Paradigm of Sensor Networks
  • Major Design Principle
  • Key Idea of Virtual – IP Bridge
  • Architecture of Virtual – IP Bridge
  • Packet Translation Algorithms
  • An Example: G-IP Approach
  • Integration of Different Sensor Networks
  • Comparison with Related Work
  • Future Research Trend
  • Publications
introduction
Introduction
  • Wireless sensor networks cannot have meaningful work without connecting with TCP/IP based network, such as Internet.
  • Furthermore, in Next Generation Network paradigm all kinds of heterogeneous wireless networks and IP based Internet should be integrated into one network to provide ubiquitous services for users.
  • We analyze all existing related research work, then based on the analysis result we present the basic design principle and key idea for connecting sensor networks with TCP/IP network.
motivation for virtual ip bridge
Motivation for Virtual – IP Bridge
  • Heterogeneous sensor networks may physically locate in different places
  • Heterogeneous sensor networks may use totally different routing protocols for their special applications
  • However, sometimes we want to integrate these sensor networks into one virtual sensor networks to provide comprehensive services
  • Therefore, we need a uniform and easy solution to overcome the heterogeneity in different sensor networks

 Virtual – IP Bridge

related work 1 5
IBM Zurich Research Lab

Sensor Network Overlay IP Based Networks

Sensor networks protocol stack is deployed over the TCP/IP and each Internet host is considered as a virtual sensor node

Assumption: only physically located in different locations but still use the same routing protocol

Advantage: easy to integrate into one virtual sensor networks

Drawback:

lose the consistency with IP based working model of NGN paradigm

brings more protocol header overhead to TCP/IP network

A

A

A

Virtual Sensor Networks

T

T

T

N

N

N

M

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

MAC

MAC

IP Based Networks

Sensor network

Internet

Gateway

Node

Virtual Node

Sensor Networks C

Sensor Networks A

Sensor Networks B

Related Work (1/5)
related work 2 5
TCP/IP overlay sensor networks

Implement IP protocol stack on sensor nodes

Advantage: Internet host can directly send commands to some particular nodes in sensor networks via IP address.

Drawback: only can be deployed on some sensor nodes which have enough processing capability

A

A

A

TCP/UDP

T

TCP/UDP

IP

IP

N

T

MAC

M

N

M

Sensor network

Internet

Gateway

Host

IP Addressable Node

Related Work (2/5)

Virtual Sensor Networks

IP Based Networks

Sensor Networks C

Sensor Networks A

Sensor Networks B

related work 3 5
Delay Tolerant Network

A Bundle Layer is deployed in both TCP/IP network and non-TCP/IP network protocol stacks to store and forward packets

Advantage: very easy to integrate with different heterogeneous wireless networks by deploying this Bundler Layer into their protocol stacks.

Drawback: comes from the deployment of Bundle Layer into existing protocols, which is a cost consuming job.

Virtual Sensor Networks

IP Based Networks

Sensor Networks C

Sensor Networks A

Sensor Networks B

Application

Application

Application

Bundle

Bundle

Bundle

T

T

Transport

Transport

N

N

Network

Network

M

M

MAC

MAC

Sensor network

Internet

DTN

Gateway

Node

Host

Related Work (3/5)
related work 4 5
Application-level Gateway

Different protocols in both networks are translated in the application layer

Advantage: the communication protocol used in the sensor networks may be chosen freely.

Drawback : Internet users cannot directly access any special sensor node.

ZigBee Gateway Follows This Approach

Virtual Sensor Networks

IP Based Networks

Sensor Networks C

Sensor Networks A

Sensor Networks B

Application

Application

A

A

T

T

TCP/UDP

TCP/UDP

IP

IP

N

N

M

MAC

MAC

M

Sensor network

Internet

Gateway

Node

Host

Related Work (4/5)
related work 5 5 zigbee gateway
Related Work (5/5): ZigBee Gateway

The IP stack is terminated at the Gateway as is the ZigBee Stack.

The Gateway provides translation between the respective stacks

communication paradigm of sensor networks
Communication Paradigm of Sensor Networks
  • Node-centric
    • every node is labeled with some names and routing is performed based on this names
  • Data-centric
    • try to make a network answer “Give me data that satisfies a certain condition”
  • Position-centric
    • uses positions of nodes as a primary means of address and route packets
what sort of connectivity
What Sort of Connectivity?
  • Gateways and Bridges are two different ways to provide connectivity.
  • Gateways provide a more full featured connectivity and allow a greater diversity of devices and applications to connect the ubiquitous sensor networks.
  • Bridges are much simpler than Gateways and hence would be a lower cost to the user but serve a smaller application space.
major design principle
Major Design Principle
  • Consistency: The new approach should be IPv6 based, because it should have the consistency with the working paradigm of Next Generation Network.
  • Transparency: By using IP based approach, non-system-designer users should be able to use services provided by sensor networks without knowing that “these services are provided by sensor networks.”
  • Energy efficiency: Sensor networks should be able to freely choose routing protocol to optimize energy efficiency and performance.
  • Direct accessibility: Some sensor nodes should be able to be accessed and operated by Internet users directly by using IP address to identify them from others.
major design principle18
Major Design Principle
  • No overlay approach: Because both of TCP/IP overlay sensor networks and or sensor networks overlay TCP/IP require modification on protocol stacks.
  • Easy integration between different sensor networks: Several locating in different place’s sensor networks should be easily integrated into one virtual sensor networks based on IP addresses.
  • Taking the advantage of knowing sensor node’s label (ID) or location address: Because once we can know the ID or location address of data source node it is very easy to build up the routing path between data source and gateway.
    • Data-Centric cannot provide the consistency with Internet working module
key idea of virtual ip bridge

Application

A

Node ID / Location address

& IP Address Mapping Layer

T

TCP/UDP

IP

IP

N

N

M

MAC

MAC

M

Sensor network

Internet

V-IP

Bridge

Node

Host

Key Idea of Virtual – IP Bridge
  • Basing on Node-Centric or Location-Centric communication paradigm, mapping the node label (ID) or location address with IP address in Bridge.
  • The IP address will not be physically deployed on sensor node, but just store in bridge as a virtual IP address for Internet users.
where is v ip bridge

Autonomic-CAMUS

Intelligent Gateway

A-CAMUS

Enterprise API

Context Deliver Layer

Wireless Network Applications

Knowledge Processing

Layer

Wireless Network Server,

Proxy, and Database

Feature Extraction Layer

Heterogeneous Protocol Conversions

Ubiquitous Sensor Networks  IP Based Networks

Integrate Different Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Into One Virtual Sensor Networks

V – IP

Bridge

Ubiquitous Sensor

Networks

Application Layer

ZigBee

Bluetooth

LEACH

CODE

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Sensor OS

Physical and MAC Layers

Sensor Nodes

Where is V– IP Bridge?
slide21

Architecture of Virtual – IP Bridge

TCP/IP Network

User IP

Sensor IP/Bridge IP

Q/O

Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command

T->S Packet Translation

S->T Packet Translation

IPv6 Address

Data Information

Based Discovery

IP Address

Based Discovery

Original

T->S Packet

Created

T-> S Packet

Data Information

IPv6 Address

Node ID /

Location Address

Node ID /

Location Address

Node ID / Location Based Discovery

Bridge IP

Sensor ID/Location

Bridge ID

User IP

Sensor ID/Location

Bridge ID

D/A

Q/O

D/A

Data / Acknowledgement

Data / Acknowledgement

Query Command / Operation Command

Sensor Networks

slide22

Solve Bottleneck Problem

TCP/IP Network

User IP

Sensor IP/Bridge IP

Q/O

Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command

Buffer

Buffer

T->S Packet

Translation

T->S Packet

Translation

S->T Packet

Translation

S->T Packet

Translation

Multiple Processes

Multiple Processes

Buffer

Buffer

Bridge IP

Sensor ID/Location

Bridge ID

User IP

Bridge ID

Sensor ID/Location

D/A

D/A

Q/O

Data / Acknowledgement

Query Command / Operation Command

Data / Acknowledgement

Sensor Networks

packet translation workflow 1 2
Packets are send from TCP/IP Network to Sensor Networks

IP Address Based Discovery

Data Information Based Discovery

T->S: TCP/IP Network to Sensor Networks

Receive Original

T->S Packet

Packet Type Analysis

Query Packet

Operation or Query?

Operation Packet

Data Information

Based Discovery

IP Based

Discovery

Create New

T->S Packet

Map and Backup Created

New T->S Packet

Send Created T->S Packet

Packet Translation Workflow(1/2)
packet translation workflow 2 2
Packets are send from Sensor Networks to TCP/IP Network

First find out corresponding created T->S packet

Then, find out corresponding original T->S packet

Analyze original T->S packet to get user’s IP address

S->T: Sensor Networks to TCP/IP Network

Receive Original

S->T Packet

Base On Source ID/

Location Address

Find Out Corresponding

Created T->S Packet

Base On Created T->S

Packet Find Out

Corresponding Original

T->S Packet

Packet Header Analysis

To Get User’s IP Address

Create New S->T Packet

Deleted Corresponding

Original and Created

T->S Packet

Send Created S->T Packet

Packet Translation Workflow(2/2)
location centric example g ip approach 1 4
Active Data Discovery and Registration

After building up grids, each coordinator actively senses its local environment and registers the Data Information about the sensed data to gateway.

Data Information & Grid ID & IP address Mapping

After active data discovery and registration, gateway can have Data Information and gird ID for whole sensor networks. In this step, we assign global unique IP address for each grid in gateway.

Location Centric Example: G-IP Approach(1/4)

V-IP

Bridge

Sensor node

Internet User

Cluster head

Forest

Data source

location centric example consistent with internet 2 4

Data Information

Data Information

Grid ID

Consistency

IP Address

IP Address

G-IP Approach

TCP/IP Network

Location Centric Example: Consistent with Internet (2/4)
  • We are trying to use IP address instead of Grid ID.
  • Because once we can hide the Grid ID from Internet users, we can have theconsistency between traditional IP based Internet and our G-IP approach.
location centric example packet translation 3 4

Packet From Internet

Source IP

Target IP/Bridge IP

Q/O

Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command

IP Address 1

Data Information 1

Grid-ID 1

Grid-ID 2

Data Information 2

IP Address 2

IP Address 3

Grid-ID 3

Data Information 3

…..

…..

…..

IP Address n-1

Grid-ID n-1

Data Information n-1

IP Address n

Grid-ID n

Data Information n

Bridge ID

Target ID

Q/O

Query Command / Operation Command

Bridge ID

Target ID

Q/O

Query Command / Operation Command

Location Centric Example: Packet Translation (3/4)
  • Four different kinds packet translations that can be done by Grid ID – IP Address Mapping Layer.
    • Directly operate coordinator
    • Directly Query based on IP address
    • Directly Query based on Data Information
    • Complicated Data Request from several coordinators

Grid ID & IP Address Mapping

Packet To Sensor

Network

location centric example packet translation 4 4

Packet From Sensor Network

Created T->S Packet

Source IP

Target IP/Bridge IP

Q/O

Complicated/Simple Data Request/Operation Command

Bridge ID

Target ID

Q/O

Query Command / Operation Command

Original T->S Packet

Packet To Internet

Bridge IP

Source ID/Location

Target IP

Bridge ID

D/A

D/A

Data / Acknowledgement

Data / Acknowledgement

Location Centric Example: Packet Translation (4/4)
  • Backup the mapping between created packets and original packets
node centric example integrate zigbee with internet

Internet

IP Based Routing Protocol

T->S Packet Translation

S->T Packet Translation

Sensor Networks

ZigBee Based Routing Protocol

Node Centric Example: Integrate ZigBee with Internet
  • Support standard routing protocol of sensor networks: ZigBee
  • ZigBee is ID based routing protocol
  • ZigBee Network Layer: Node Centric Routing
  • Mapping ZigBee address with IP address
integration of different sensor networks

All-IP Based Wire/Wireless Networks

Sensor networks

C

Sensor networks

A

Sensor networks

B

Integration of Different Sensor Networks
  • Several sensor networks deployed in different locations
  • These sensor networks may be using totally different routing protocols for their special applications
  • All of these sensor networks have gateways which have virtual IP addresses, it is very easy to integrate them into one virtual sensor networks.
comparison with related work
Comparison with Related Work
  • Our solution can cover most of the benefits of related researches
future research trend
Future Research Trend
  • Internetworking between Wireless Sensor Networks and Wired TCP/IP network towards Next Generation Network Paradigm
  • Integration of Heterogeneous Sensor Networks for building up comprehensive Virtual Sensor Networks over wired/wireless networks
  • Autonomic Routing Service and Query Service of Sensor Networks for Heterogeneous working situations and environments
  • Cross Layer Designfor Energy Efficient & Real Time Data Transmission over Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
publications
Publications
  • Shu Lei, Yang Jie, Sungyoung Lee, "ETRI: A Dyanmic Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks", ETRSI 2004, Lisbon, Portugal, December 5-8, 2004
  • Shu Lei, Wu Xiaoling, Yang Jie, Sungyoung Lee,"Maximizing System Value among Interested Packets While Satisfying Time and Energy Constraints", ICN'05, April 17-21, 2005 - Reunion Island, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE)
  • Shu Lei, Wu Xiaoling, Yang Jie, Sungyoung Lee, Jinsung Cho, "Two Ties Buffer and ETRI-PS Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks",GESTS International Transaction on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.6 and No.1, ISSN: 1738-6438, http://www.gests.org, May, 31, 2005, (Journal)
  • Wang Jin, Shu Lei, Young-Koo Lee, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, "A Load-balancing and Energy-aware Clustering Algorithm in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks", USN’05, Japan, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE)
  • Yang Jie, Shu Lei, Wu Xiaoling, Jinsung Cho, Sungyong Lee, “ETRI-QM: Reward Oriented Query Model for Wireless Sensor Networks“, EUC’05, Japan, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE)
  • Wu Xiaoling, Shu Lei, Yang Jie, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee,"Swarm Based Sensor Deployment Optimization in Ad hoc Sensor Networks ", ICESS’05, Xi’an, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE)
  • Xu Hui, Jeon Man Woo, Shu Lei, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Localized Energy-Aware Broadcast Protocol in Wireless Network with Directional Antenna", ICESS’05, Xi’an, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE)
  • Shu Lei,Wang Jin, Xu Hui, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Connecting Sensor Networks with TCP/IP Network”, IWSN’06, Harbin, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE)
  • Wu Xiaoling, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Deployment Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization”, IWSN’06, Harbin, China, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (SCIE)
  • Shu Lei, Jinsung Cho, Sungyoung Lee, “Integrating Wireless Sensor With All IP Based Internet for Next Generation”, GWN 2005, KAIST, Daejeon, Korea.