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Digital Photography 101 for Library Applications. Instructor: Jeanne Moje jmmoje@berkeley.edu An Infopeople Workshop Winter 2004. Workshop Agenda. Digital Camera Overview Hints on Taking Photos Who Owns That Image? Photo Design and Repair Managing Your Digital Photo Collection.

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digital photography 101 for library applications

Digital Photography 101for Library Applications

Instructor:

Jeanne Moje

jmmoje@berkeley.edu

An Infopeople Workshop

Winter 2004

workshop agenda
Workshop Agenda
  • Digital Camera Overview
  • Hints on Taking Photos
  • Who Owns That Image?
  • Photo Design and Repair
  • Managing Your Digital Photo Collection
why digital photography
Why Digital Photography?
  • Advantage over film cameras
    • Immediate feedback / results
    • Don’t need to develop film
    • Ease of image manipulation
  • Add interest to your web site
    • Publicize and document library events
    • Pictures are worth a thousand words
  • Provide material for library displays
overview of digital cameras
Overview of Digital Cameras
  • Lens types
  • Case sizes
  • Pixel depth
  • Zoom power
  • Storage media types
    • Older memory formats
    • Newer memory formats
    • Alternative memory formats
lens types
Lens Types
  • Regular fixed lens
    • with or without zoom
  • Digital SLR (single-lens reflex)
    • More control over depth of field
    • Interchangeable lenses
  • Large format
    • For incredible detail in a large image
    • Huge file sizes
digital camera case sizes
Digital Camera Case Sizes
  • Listed in order of price
    • Compact
    • Micro
    • Medium
    • Large
pixel depth
Pixel Depth
  • Why would you want more pixels?
    • 3 megapixels
    • 4 megapixels
    • 5 megapixels
    • Foveon technology 3.4
      • Three layers to each pixel
      • Equivalent to 10 megapixels
pixel print comparison
Pixel Print Comparison
  • To maintain quality, choose higher megapixel settings if you need larger print sizes
    • 1 megapixels ≅ 4 x 6
    • 2 megapixels ≅ 5 x 7
    • 3 megapixels ≅ 8 x 11
    • 4 megapixels ≅ 11 x 14
    • 5 megapixels ≅ 12 x 16
zoom power
Zoom Power
  • Optical zoom changes the image by moving the lens
  • Digital zoom changes the image by cropping (enlarging the pixels)
  • Interchangeable lenses on SLR digital cameras – expensive!
    • Gives you more shutter speed control
    • Wide-angle, panoramic, specialty lenses
types of storage media
Types of Storage Media
  • Some can be used in multiple portable devices
    • Digital cameras, notebooks, PDAs, music players, car stereo
  • Standardize on a flash memory type
    • Secure Digital (SD) - up and coming
    • Compact Flash (CF) - still a good choice
older memory formats
Older Memory Formats
  • These formats are being phased out
    • SmartMedia (SM)
    • MultiMediaCard (MMC)
  • Mini-CDs, floppy disks
  • Compact Flash (CF)
    • More devices use CF that any other media type
    • High capacity
newer memory formats
Newer Memory Formats
  • Memory stick (MS)
    • only used by Sony
  • xD-Picture Card
    • Fujifilm, Olympus
    • Projected highest capacity
  • Secure Digital (SD)
    • Projected highest use
    • Broadest support
alternative memory formats
Alternative Memory Formats
  • CF Mini hard drives
    • IBM microdrive
    • Up to 1 GB in storage
  • Digital camera off-load units
before you start
Before You Start
  • Practice with the camera
  • Double-check your camera settings
  • Carry extra batteries
  • Experiment with flash
    • How close to subject?
    • Test red-eye settings
hints on taking photos
Hints On Taking Photos
  • Use a tripod or lean against stationery object
  • Conserve batteries
    • Limit use of screen viewer
    • Is camera turned off when not in use?
automatic forced flash
Automatic & Forced Flash
  • Automatic
    • Fires automatically as required
    • Useful for ordinary photography
  • Forced Flash
    • Photograph backlit scenes
    • Use outside in shade
    • Color correct fluorescent light
suppressed red eye flash
Suppressed & Red-Eye Flash
  • Suppressed Flash
    • Indoors where flash is ineffective
    • Photos taken through glass
  • Red-Eye Reduction
    • Pre-flashes so subject’s eyes appear more natural
    • Fires automatically as required
slow synchro flash types
Slow-Synchro Flash Types
  • Slow-Synchro
    • Slow shutter speed for taking pictures of people at night
    • Will show both subject and night time backdrop
    • Recommend tripod
  • Red-Eye Reduction plus Slow-Synchro
example of flash icons
Example of Flash Icons

Red eye

reduction

Red eye

reduction

plus slow

synchro

Forced

flash

Suppressed

flash

Slow

synchro

white balance control
White Balance Control
  • Will attempt to correct the color for given light sources such as:
    • Daylight fluorescents
    • Warm white fluorescents
    • Cool white fluorescents
    • Incandescent lights
    • Outdoors
    • Shade
delayed shutter response
Delayed Shutter Response
  • Anticipate shutter lag
    • Shutter delay varies between cameras
  • Ask your subject to hold still!
  • Image-writing delay while the camera stores the photo
    • Some cameras are able to store images more quickly
taking photos of people
Taking Photos of People
  • Avoid red-eye
    • Use red-eye flash function
    • Ask subject to look away from flash
    • Use natural light
  • Don’t get too close
    • Distortion
    • You can crop image later
flattery or kindness
Flattery Or Kindness?
  • Avoid harsh shadows
  • Try different viewpoints
  • Use natural light instead of flash
  • Red clothing will overpowerskin tones
hold still
Hold Still!
  • Posing versus natural action
  • Take numerous photos of same pose
    • Subject may relax
    • Pose will look more natural
  • Shutter lag makes naturalaction shots difficult
connecting to a computer
Connecting to a Computer
  • Install camera software
  • Check camera battery charge or plug in power adapter
  • Choice of connections
    • Camera to computer
    • Memory media to computer
  • Copy or move files from camera to computer
problems
Problems?
  • Where to go if you have problems with your camera
  • Camera batteries weak?
  • What if your computer won’t talk to the camera?
  • Software updates andother annoyances
indoor lighting
Indoor Lighting
  • Fluorescent light is green
  • Incandescent light is red
  • North light bulbs are blue
  • “Color-corrected” light bulbs are best
  • Use two light sourcesif possible
photographing objects
Photographing Objects
  • Avoid parallax effect if object has straight lines
    • Align camera to object
    • Align lines of object with frame of viewfinder or LCD monitor
  • Use a tripod or stand
  • Macro lenses
lighting objects
Lighting Objects
  • Lighting
    • Two lights are best
    • 45° angle to object
    • Measure distance of lights
  • Use a “color key” for fine reproductions
before you choose
Before You Choose
  • What is your budget?
  • Will it connect to your computer?
  • Evaluate your photographic needs
    • Pixel depth
    • Power supply requirements
    • Memory needs (16 MB to 1 GB+)
    • Do you have other portable devices?
    • Zoom capability needed?
how to choose a camera
How To Choose A Camera
  • Try out cameras for a good fit
    • Does it fit your hands?
    • Controls easy to locate?
    • Display screen large enough?
    • Light enough to carry?
    • Zoom power?
  • Purchase at a store or buy online?
  • Keep an eye on sale prices
bookmarks topics to visit
Bookmarks Topics to Visit
  • Digital camera glossaries and dictionaries
  • Digital camera overview
  • Vendor web sites fordigital cameras andphotography
outdoor lighting
Outdoor Lighting
  • Sunlight causes shadows
  • North light is blue
  • Overcast days
  • Indirect lighting best for people
  • Use fill-in flash or reflector
taking photos outdoors40
Taking Photos Outdoors
  • Sunrise, sunset
  • High noon
  • Overcast
  • Fill-in flash
  • Few filters availablefor digital cameras
    • Glare and reflections
    • Dust and smog
do the right thing
Do The Right Thing!
  • Get a signature release from your subjects
  • Copyright considerations
  • Infopeople course materialsavailable
signature releases
Signature Releases
  • Who owns that photograph?
  • If you put a photo of a person on the web, get a signature release
  • Legal issues
  • Sample signature releases
copyright considerations
Copyright Considerations
  • Again, who owns that photograph?
  • Legal issues
  • Get permission!
  • Protect your images
bookmarks topics to visit45
Bookmarks Topics to Visit
  • Infopeople course
    • Library Laws For The Web Environment - 2002
  • Signature release samples
  • Copyright law
photo design and repair
Photo Design and Repair
  • Design and color hints
  • Cropping
  • Resizing
  • Color correction
design hints
Design Hints
  • View as abstract artwork (turn the photo upside down)
  • Save as black & white for a fresh view
  • Look at negative spaces
  • Avoid clutter
the rule of thirds in design
The Rule of Thirds in Design
  • Hum Beethoven’s Fifth
  • Imagine a tic-tac-toe grid on your image
    • Line objects on the grid
    • Offset the focal point within the composition
  • Check for proportions of two-to-one
value contrast luminance
Value, Contrast & Luminance
  • Value
    • Relative lightness or darkness of a color
    • Black & white photography helps you see value
  • Contrast
    • Difference between highest and lowest luminance values
  • Luminance relates to light
hue saturation brightness
Hue, Saturation & Brightness
  • Hue
    • Intensity or gradation of color
  • Saturation
    • Chromatic purity - has color been diluted with white?
  • Brightness
    • Brilliance of a color relating to hue or saturation
color impact
Color Impact
  • Emotional impact of color
    • What kind of message do you wish to convey?
  • Reds “bleed”
    • May overpower other parts of the image
color hints
Color Hints
  • The rule of threes in color
  • Squint to see the values in the image
  • Check proportions of color of two-to-one
cropping and resizing
Cropping and Resizing
  • Focus on the subject
  • Get rid of clutter
  • The web can only show so much!
  • Reduce image file size
  • Improve your design
software can correct color
Software Can Correct Color
  • Balance your color
  • Correct bad lighting
  • Punch up the values
  • Increase the hue
types of software
Types of Software
  • Beginner
    • Apple iPhoto, Hypersnap, LviewPro
  • Intermediate
    • PaintShop Pro, Photoshop Elements
  • Advanced
    • Fireworks, Photoshop
  • Camera software
exporting for the web
Exporting For The Web
  • Use “save as” - keep original safe
  • PC vs Macintosh color differences
  • Reduce image and file size
    • Crop image
    • Resize image
    • Change file format to jpg or gif
    • Set resolution to 72 dpi
exporting for print
Exporting For Print
  • Use “save as” - keep original safe
  • Use largest pixel size setting available for camera
    • You won’t be able to take as many photos at a time, but the print quality will be greater
  • Save to highest quality TIFF format setting
  • Talk with your printer!
  • Color-correct your monitor
file extensions
File Extensions
  • JPEG (*.jpg) web graphics
  • GIF (*.gif) flat color web graphics
  • TIFF (*.tif) print graphics
  • PSD (*.psd) Adobe Photoshop
  • PNG (*.png) Fireworks
  • PDF (*.pdf) Adobe Acrobat
  • Proprietary extensions
digital photos can be huge
Digital Photos Can Be Huge!
  • Managing disk space
  • Organizing your photos
  • Types of file management software
  • Infopeople course materials availableon digitization projects
  • Don’t forget metadata!
bookmarks topics to visit63
Bookmarks Topics to Visit
  • Graphics software vendors
  • Digital collections projects
  • Infopeople course materials
    • Planning To Digitize Your Treasures, 2000
    • Planning Your Digitization Project, 2001
    • Creating Web Images With Fireworks, 2002
back to reality
Back To Reality…
  • What photos do you need (or want) to take for your library?
    • How / where will you use these photos?
    • What camera settings to use?
    • What is the subject matter?
    • Environment?
    • What kind of lighting?
    • Legal issues?
summary and evaluation
Summary and Evaluation
  • Overview of digital cameras
  • Hints on taking photos
  • Who owns that image?
  • Design and color hints
  • Managing your files and disk space