Digital Photography COLOR…. October 19, 2005
Primary Colors • Primary Colors (Depends on application and environment) • YRB – (red, yellow, blue) – Pigment Colors • RGB (red, blue, green) – Additive Color • System says all perceivable hues can be created by mixing different amounts of red, green and blue light • CMY (cyan, magenta, yellow) – Subtractive Color • System that says objects are seen because they reflect light from another illuminant source • Like color prints, but the spectral sensitivity of the medium (like paper) matters in how the color is perceived
Primary Colors of Art • Red • Yellow • Blue • Need additional pigments for mixing • Black • White
Additive Color • RGB • Involves the use of colored lights • Starts with darkness (absence of color) and adds Red, Green, or Blue light together to produce other colors • All colors combine together to make white
Subtractive Color • CMY • Involves colorants and reflected light • Uses Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow pigments or dyes to subtract portions of white light illuminating on object to produce other colors. • When combined in equal amounts, pure subtractive primary colors make black • Create color by subtracting or absorbing certain wavelengths of color while reflecting other wavelengths back to the viewer
Color Theory • A lot of the theory about using color in photographs comes from the art world, so even though we use the RGB color system when taking pictures, and the CMYK color systems when printing pictures, we are going to talk about color theory using the YRB painters color system
Colors • (From reading homework) • First Order Colors: primary colors from painting • Yellow • Red • Blue • Second Order Colors: • Orange • Violet • Green • Other Secondary colors: • Blue, blue-violet, violet, red-violet, red, red-orange, orange, yellow-orange, yellow, yellow-green, green, blue-green
First and Second Order Colors & the Visible Spectrum • ROYGBIV • Red • Orange • Yellow • Green • Blue • Indigo • Violet
Working with Color • Using definitions from “Colour Theory as Applied to Landscape Photography” • Complementary Colors • Two colors that are opposite on the color wheel • Red-Green • Orange-Blue • Yellow-Violet • Simultaneous contrast • When complementary colors appear together they increase their intensity
Harmonizing Colors • Visualizing three points of isosceles triangle that sits in the middle of the circle • Two of the colors are one zone apart and the third is at the end of the triangle opposite • As a photographer, it is difficult to plan for harmonizing colors • But can be good to understand • Can make photo look “better”
Harmonizing Example • Blue-Green, red & orange picture from reading
Color Relationships • Most of this content for the next 8 slides comes from About.com: Color Meanings and Colors That Go Together • (Conflicting definitions from reading) • Adjacent or harmonizing colors • Appear next to each other on the color wheel • Can work well together, but can also look washed out if there isn’t enough contrast • Complementary colors • Separated by another color on the color wheel • Can cause visual vibration if they are directly next to one another, but can be okay if separated by another color • Clashing or contrasting colors • Directly opposite each other on the color wheel • Can actually be good if the proportions of the colors are good – can provide great contrast and high visibility
Meaning of Colors • Colors are non-verbal communication – they have symbolism & meanings • Some colors create a physical reaction (red raises blood pressure) • Some times there is a cultural reaction • Colors follow trends (avocado green was popular in the 60s-70s) • Colors of Calm • Cool colors have a calming effect • Can appear smaller than warm colors and will visually recede on the page • Blue, green, turquoise, gray, silver, white • Colors of Excitement • Warm colors that rev us up and get us going • Can overpower cooler colors • Red, pink, yellow, gold, orange, black, brown
Meaning of Colors • Colors of Intrigue • Attributes of both warm and cool colors – calm & excite • Purple, lavender, green, turquoise, blue • Colors of Unity • Neutral colors can unify diverse color palettes – putting the focus back on other colors • Black, gray, white, ivory, brown, beige • The following slides look at the primary and secondary colors and some meanings typically associated with them
RED • The Nature of Red • Red is hot – conflicting emotions from passionate love to violence and warfare • Red is the hottest of the warm colors • Red is power, flashing red lights mean danger or emergency, in some cultures red denotes purity, joy, happiness, & celebration • Using Red • To grab attention and to get people to take action • Use red to make your subject stand out from the background • A little bit of red can go a long way • Multiple shades of red and even pink or orange can combine for a cheerful palette • Red and other colors • Green – a contrasting color, can bring out the intensity of red • Blues – provide contrast and tone down the heat of red • Light pinks and yellows harmonize with red • Purple and red can be overpowering • Your thoughts of red?
Red Snow Fence —Toronto, 1994
ORANGE • The Nature of Orange • Flamboyant, energetic, & vibrant – shares characteristics with red and yellow • Stimulating warm color – stimulates emotions & sometimes the appetite • Brings to mind autumn leaves, pumpkins, citrus, good health • Using Orange • A way to get noticed without screaming – orange demands attention • Use softer oranges for friendlier, more soothing images • Use orange to indicate transition – fall colors • Orange and other colors • Combine with red and yellow for a fiery combination • Tropical looks with green • High contrast with blues and purple • Your thoughts of orange?
Orange Warm Turnout, October, 2000
YELLOW • The Nature of Yellow • Sunshine, very bright color • Conflicting symbolism – happiness & joy but also cowardice and deceit • Warm color, high visibility; used in hazard or emergency signs; also a cheerful color • Using Yellow • Works well as a companion to other colors • Can create excitement • Yellow and other colors • Can perk up a more subdued color palette • High contrast with blues and purples • Your thoughts of yellow?
Yellow Aspens #1, Route 168, October 1999
GREEN • The Nature of Green • Life, nature – growth, renewal, health & the environment • Restful color with calming effects • Using Green • Warming and cooling effect – balance, harmony & stability • Several shades of green for Spring feeling • Green and other colors • With blue – calming, nature feeling • With red or purple - high contrast • Your thoughts of green?
Green Evergreen Hillside, Quebec, 2000
BLUE • The Nature of Blue • Calm & cool • Strong & steadfast or light & friendly • Universal color • Using Blue • Can convey a sense of richness or coolness • Combine different shades of blue for sophisticated look with subtle contrast • Blue and other colors • With green – natural, watery palette • Contrast it with orange or yellow • Purple and red can be overpowering • Your thoughts of blue?
Blue Mirrored Lake —CA, 1996
PURPLE/VIOLET • The Nature of Purple • Royalty & spirituality • Mysterious color – both warm and cool properties • Using Purple • Deep or dark purples – riches • Lighter purples – romantic and delicate • Can add warm or cooler feeling, depending on shade of purple • Purple and other colors • Contrasts with yellow, orange • Can be striking with greens • Purple and red can be overpowering • Your thoughts of purple/violet?
Purple/Violet www.canyoncreeknursery.com/ violets.html Blue Ridge Sunrise, October, 2000
Color Homework • Take 5-10 pictures in a “mini-portfolio” focusing on a single color (ROYGBIV) • Be prepared to show your favorite 2-3 of them and describe how the color sets the mood/emotion of the picture
Color Continued Thursday, October 20
Elements of Color • Hue • The property of colors by which they can be perceived as ranging from red through yellow, green, and blue, as determined by the dominant wavelength of the light. • Saturation • A measurement of a color’s purity or how much it has been diluted by white
Elements of Color, cont’d • Brightness • The amount of light the color reflects, or how much black is in the color • Contrast • A measure of the rate of change of brightness in an image. • High contrasts means both dark black and bright white within the picture
Color Photography • Color photography has always been a challenge • How many great photographs use color? • Ansel Adams – mostly black and white images • Other famous photographers – what have you noticed?
Color Mini-Portfolios • Cammo • Mills • Liane • Show and discuss
Color Perception Notice what the eye can see Vs Printable Colors Vs RGB monitor Colors
Changing Nature of Color • We already talked about how color changes with light • Daylight is different color at different times of day • Light from a light bulb is different from a fluorescent tube is different from daylight or moonlight • Color also changes depending on the medium • Different kinds of paper, etc • Different monitors • Color changes based on the surroundings
Colors and their surroundings • Colors are usually seen with other colors • The color we perceive can change a lot depending on changes in surrounding colors
Color affecting sizes • Which square is bigger?
Color – Fleeting sense of light • Monet’s pictures – often the color seem arbitrary, but if we think about the time of day the painting was made… we realize that the picture is capturing a fleeting sensation of time
Color – Fleeting sense of light See full size picture to compare
Abstract Color • Color can be used as the composition itself • Finding a colorful item with textures and using a close-up of that item as the subject (also can disguise the subject and make it seem as if it is something else) Image from Hedgecoe book
Touch of Color • Good compositional tool - using a touch of color to make the subject stand out and provide a stronger composition Student photograph Hedgecoe book
Test Review – Your Questions • Camera, Camera Care, Camera Features • Lenses • Exposure • Composition • Basic Photoshop • Lighting / Lighting techniques • Memory & Storage (file formats) • Color (Not on test, will be on a quiz next week) • Anything in assigned reading is fair game for the test, so make sure you have read everything