India - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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India

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  1. India • Role of Geography

  2. The Earliest Indus River Civilizations

  3. Harappan India • Centered along the Indus River in NW India • Similar to Mesopotamia and Nile cultures • Agricultural economy

  4. Aryan arrival • Came from Central Asia • Arrived ca 1500-1000 BCE • Vedic Age, 1200-600 BCE:\ • Epic stories of Varuna, the mighty god, and Indra, the warrior god • Connected with veneration of the god Shiva • Invasion of Alexander, 326 BCE

  5. Hinduism • Vedic Age gave rise to Hinduism • Upanishads—philosophical speculations • Maya • Transmigration of Souls • Karma • Caste System

  6. Hindu Castes Brahmins: Profs and priests Kshatriyas: Military leaders and politicians Vaishyas: Farmers, landlords, businessmen Sudras: Peasants, servants, laborers Untouchables (Dalit): Workers in polluting jobs (Officially outlawed in 1949)

  7. Buddhism • Gautama Buddha (563 BCE-483 BCE) • “middle way” • Restored the ethical content to Karma • The Four Noble Truths: that suffering is an inherent part of existence; that the origin of suffering is ignorance and the main symptoms of that ignorance are attachment and craving; that attachment and craving can be ceased; and that following the Noble Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of attachment and craving and therefore suffering. • The Noble Eightfold Path: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. • Spread under King Asoka (ca. 250 BCE); virtually unknown in India by 1200. • Theravada (South East Asia) and Mahayana Buddhism (China and Japan)

  8. Mauryan Empire • First Indian dynasty to control India • Chandragupta Maurya drove out Greeks • Grandson, Ashoka, consolidated control (r. 269-232) • Buddhist convert • Edicts of Ashoka • India fell into disunity and regionalism

  9. Ashoka India (3C BC)

  10. Gupta India • 320-550 CE in northern India • Less militaristic than Mauryan state • Golden Age • Helped spread a uniform law code • Hinduism crystalized during this time • Aryabhata—Archimedes of India

  11. Indian Government • Did not develop the traditions of China,or the inquiry of Greece and Rome • Altered between regional and national unity • Not particularly elaborate systems • Local villages the key to social cohesion

  12. Coming of Muslim Rulers • Babur the Tiger (1526)—subordinated Hindu chieftains to his rule. • Mughal Dynasty controlled India until British Imperialists seize power. • Mughal Dynasty under Akbar (1556-1605) brings order and stability to Hindu Country • Din Ilahi • Akbar’s successors squander wealth and attempt to impose Sharia on Hindu population.

  13. Akbar the the Moghul Conqueror of India (1556-1605)

  14. The Spread of the Mughal Empire

  15. Contemporary India

  16. The Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan in the 17C

  17. Brahma: The Creator

  18. Lord Krishna or Vishnu: The Preserver

  19. Lord Shiva: The Destroyer

  20. “Twining of the Creeper” from the Kamasutra

  21. Image of Buddha from 13C