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How Nutrients Become You. Six Nutrient Groups Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water. Chemistry of Nutrition. Elements-simplest substances Matter-takes up space; is measurable Molecule smallest amount of substance with characteristics of the substance

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how nutrients become you
How Nutrients Become You
  • Six Nutrient Groups
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
chemistry of nutrition
Chemistry of Nutrition
  • Elements-simplest substances
  • Matter-takes up space; is measurable
  • Molecule
    • smallest amount of substance with characteristics of the substance
    • made of two or more atoms bonded together

COMPOUND is formed when atoms of different elements are bonded together

functions of nutrients
Functions of Nutrients
  • Build and repair body tissues
    • Growth spurts, injuries, illness
  • Regulate body processes
    • Circulation, digestion, absorption, metabolism
  • Provide energy
    • Fuel
    • Carbs and fats
energy value of food
Energy Value of Food
  • Kilocalorie-amount of heat required to raise one kilogram of water one degree Celsius
  • Kilocalorie=Calories
  • Fats=9 calories/gm
  • Carbohydrates=4 calories/gm
  • Protein=4 calories/gm
  • Alcohol=7 calories/gm (no nutrient value!)
the process of digestion
The Process of Digestion
  • Body breaks down food into simpler substances
  • Mechanical Digestion-chewing…
  • Chemical Digestion
    • Enzymes (protein) cause chemical reactions
  • GI Tract-25-30’ (mouth to anus)
    • 5-14 hours from mouth to sm. intestine
components of gi tract
Components of GI tract
  • Mouth-mastication, saliva
  • Esophagus (10 “)
    • parallels trachea (epiglottis)
    • Peristalsis-moves food through
  • Stomach (3 hours-fats take longest)
    • Gastric juices: HCl, enzymes, mucous
    • Chyme
    • Pepsin begins protein breakdown
gi con d
GI con’d
  • Small Intestine (95% digestion occurs here)
    • 20’ long when stretched…1” diameter
    • Duodenum(12”)
    • Jejunum (4 ‘)
    • Ileum (5 ‘)
  • Large Intestine (colon)
    • Little digestion
    • Water reabsorption
    • Bacteria work on fiber
    • Feces pass through rectum and anus
absorption of nutrients
Absorption of Nutrients
  • Passage of nutrients from digestive to circulatory and lymphatic systems
  • Water soluble nutrients
    • Amino acids, monosaccharides, minerals, vitamin C, B vitamins
  • Fat soluble nutrients
    • Vitamins A, D, E, K, fatty acids, glycerol, monoglycerides
metabolism
Metabolism
  • Chemical changes producing energy
  • Energy stored in muscles-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • Waste products from cell metabolism discarded through
    • Kidneys
    • Lungs
    • Skin
factors affecting digestion
Factors Affecting Digestion
  • Eating habits
  • Emotions
  • Food allergies
  • Physical exercise
digestive disorders
Digestive Disorders
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Indigestion
  • Heartburn (GERD)
  • Ulcer
  • Gallstones
  • Diverticulosis