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Haemoflagellates Leishmaniasis & Trypanosomiasis. Different stages of Haemoflagellates. Promastigotes of Leishmania . Amastigote of Leishmania. The life cycle of Leishmania. Leishmania Parasites and Diseases. World distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis. Sand fly.

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Haemoflagellates Leishmaniasis & Trypanosomiasis


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    1. Haemoflagellates Leishmaniasis & Trypanosomiasis

    2. Different stages of Haemoflagellates

    3. Promastigotes of Leishmania Amastigote of Leishmania

    4. The life cycle of Leishmania

    5. Leishmania Parasites and Diseases

    6. World distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    7. Sand fly

    8. Amastigotes of Leishmania

    9. Promastigotes of Leishmania

    10. lesion

    11. lesion

    12. lesion

    13. Clinical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis • Leishmania major:Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis: wet lesions with severe reaction • Leishmania tropica:Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis: Dry lesions with minimal ulceration Oriental sore (most common) classical self-limited ulcer

    14. Uncommon types • Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL): Caused by L. aethiopica, diffuse nodular non-ulcerating lesions. Low immunity to Leishmania antigens, numerous parasites. • Leishmaniasis recidiva (lupoid leishmaniasis): Severe immunological reaction to leishmania antigen leading to persistent dry skin lesions, few parasites.

    15. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis recidiva

    16. cutaneous leishmaniasis Diagnosis: • Smear: Giemsa stain – microscopy for LD bodies (amastigotes) • Biopsy: microscopy for LD bodies or culture in NNN medium for promastigotes

    17. NNN medium

    18. Treatment • No treatment – self-healing lesions • Medical: • Pentavalent antimony (Pentostam), Amphotericin B • +/- Antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. • Surgical: • Cryosurgery • Excision • Curettage

    19. Pentostam ( sodium stibogluconate) for treatment of all types of leishmaniasis

    20. Visceral leishmaniasis • There are geographical variations. • The diseases is called kala-azar • Leishmania infantum mainly affect children • Leishmania donovani mainly affects adults

    21. Presentation • Fever • Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly • Weight loss • Anaemia • Epistaxis • Cough • Diarrhoea

    22. Untreated disease can be fatal After recovery it might produce a condition called post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL)

    23. Fever 2 times a day due to kala-azar

    24. Hepatosplenomegaly in visceral leishmaniasis

    25. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

    26. Visceral leishmaniasis Diagnosis • Parasitological diagnosis: METHOD Bone marrow aspirate 1. microscopy Splenic aspirate 2. culture in NNNmedium Lymph node Tissue biopsy

    27. Bone marrow aspiration Bone marrow amastigotes

    28. (2) Immunological Diagnosis: • Specific serologic tests: Direct Agglutination Test (DAT), ELISA, IFAT • Skin test (leishmanin test) for survey of populations and follow-up after treatment. • Non specific detection of hypergammaglobulinaem by formaldehyde (formol-gel) test or by electrophoresis.

    29. DAT test ELISA test

    30. Formol-gel

    31. Treatment: • Pentavalent antimony- sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) • Amphotericin B Treatment of complications: • Anaemia • Bleeding • Infections etc.

    32. Post-kalazar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL)

    33. Trypanosomiases

    34. African Trypanosomiasis Life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense & T. b. rhodesiense

    35. African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: East Africa, wild and domestic animal reservoirs Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: West and Central Africa, mainly human infection

    36. Animal reservoir hosts for African sleeping sickness

    37. Tsetse fly

    38. Pathology and clinical picture • Skin stage: chancre. • Haematolymphatic stage: generalized lymphadenopathy, anaemia, generalized organ involvement. • Central nervous system stage (CNS): Meningoencephalitis. (Development of the disease more rapid in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense)

    39. chancre

    40. Winterbottom’s stage

    41. 3rd stage CNS

    42. Lymph node aspirate

    43. trypanosoma

    44. CSF

    45. AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS LIFE CYCLE OF Trypanosoma cruzi