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HAEMOFLAGELLATES. Dr.Rita Swaminathan Mr.Narayana Kamath. HAEMOFLAGELLATES. Protozoans living in blood &tissue of human Belong to Subphylum Mastigophora Two hosts are needed for completion of life cycle Leishmania & Trypanosoma are important human pathogens.

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haemoflagellates

HAEMOFLAGELLATES

Dr.Rita SwaminathanMr.Narayana Kamath

haemoflagellates2
HAEMOFLAGELLATES
  • Protozoans living in blood &tissue of human
  • Belong to Subphylum Mastigophora
  • Two hosts are needed for completion of life cycle
  • Leishmania & Trypanosoma are important human pathogens
morphological characteristics of haemoflagellates
Morphological characteristics of Haemoflagellates
  • Haemoflagellates have a single nucleus
  • A special structure –Kinetoplast (parabasal body &bleperoplast)
  • Parabasl body contains mitochondrial DNA
  • Bleperoplast give rise to flagellum
morphological forms haemoflagellates
Morphological forms-Haemoflagellates
  • Amasitogote
  • Promastigote
  • Epimastigote
  • Trypomastigote
  • Differentiated on basis of 1.size&shape2.position of kinetoplast 3. Point of emergence of external flagella 4. Presence of an undulating membrane
amastigote stage haemoflagellates
Amastigote stage-Haemoflagellates

axoneme

kinetoplast

nucleus

promastigote stage haemoflagellates
Promastigote stage -Haemoflagellates

kinetoplast

nucleus

axoneme

flagellum

pathogenicity
Pathogenicity
  • Incubation period : 3-6 months
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis/kala azar
  • Amstigote forms multiply in Reticuloendothelial system
  • Spleen, liver, lymph nodes,bone marrow
  • Hepatospleenomegaly
  • Stimulation of CMI &AMI
  • Reversal of Albumin/Globulin ratio
pathogenicity10
Pathogenicity
  • Anemia,leucopenia & thrombocytopenia
  • Fever, malaise,headache
  • Hepatspleenomegaly &Lymphadenopathy
  • Skin is dry, rough & Pigmented
  • 75-95%of untreated cases die within 2 years
  • Death due to secondary infections
laboratory diagnosis
Laboratory diagnosis
  • Non-specific Lab tests :

Blood count,hemoglobin estimation,Serum proteins,A:G ratio

Parasitological diagnosis:

Peripheral smear(amastogote forms)

Lymph node,bone marrow,liver,Spleen :aspiration/needle biopsy(Giemsa-amastigote)

Culture :Promastigote form

Animal inoculation

laboratory diagnosis13
Laboratory diagnosis
  • Immunological tests
  • Non-specific tests:Aldehyde test

Antimony test

Complement fixation test with

W.K.K antigen(Witebsky,Kleingenstein& Kunh)

Specific tests:Direct agglutination(DAT)

IHA,Indirect fluorescent antibody test

ELISA ,Leishmanin or Montenegro test

post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis pkdl
POST KALA AZAR DERMAL LEISHMANIASIS(PKDL)
  • As a result of therapeutic cure from viscereal leishmaniasis,due to reversal of the agent from viscerotropc to dermatotropic
  • Differentialdiagnosis:

Malaria,trypanosomiasis,schistosomiasis,liver abscess,splenomegaly,histoplasmosis,TB,brucellosis…etc.

treatment
Treatment
  • Pentavalent antimonials

Sodium stibogluconate

Meglucomine anitmoniate

Aromatic diamidines:

Monomycin

Paromycicn

Aminosidine

Amphotericin B