The tsetse fly AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS “Sleeping Sickness”
African Trypanosomiasis African Trypanosomiasis can occur in both humans an animals. It is a vector borne parasitic disease which means it is transmitted to humans or other animals by an insect. This disease is transmitted to humans by tsetse fly bites. There are two kids of African Trypanosomiasis.
Trypanosoma Brucei Gambience Trypanosoma Brucei Gambience (T.b.g) is found in west an central Africa. It is currently 95% of reported cause of sleeping sickness. A person can be infected for months or even years without major signs or symptoms of this disease.
Trypanosoma Brucei Rhodesiense Trypanosoma Brucei Rhodesiense (T.b.r.) is found in eastern and southern Africa. Under 5% of reported cases. First symptoms are seen in a few months or weeks after infection. It develops rapidly and invades the central nervous system.
Treatment The type of treatment for the disease depends on the stage of it. The drugs they use in the first stage of the disease are of lower toxicity and are easier to administer. The earlier the disease is identified, the better the prospect of care. Treatment success in the second stage depends on a drug that is able to cross the blood-brain barrier to reach the parasite.
First Stage Treatment • Pentamidine: discovered in 1941, used for the treatment of the first stage of T.b.g. generally well tolerated by patients. • Suramin: discovered in 1921, used for the treatment of the first stage of T.b.r. and it causes some undesirable effects.
Second Stage Treatment • Melarsoprol: discovered in 1949, used in both forms of infection. The most dramatic reactive can be fatal. • Eflorninthin: less toxic than Melarsoprol. Was registered in 1990. Is only affective on T.b.g. • A combination of two medicines has been introduced in 2009. Not affective for T.b.r.
Facts • Transmitted by the tsetse fly. • Also called Sleeping Sickness. • Sleeping sickness occurs only in 36 sub-Saharan African countries where there are tsetse flies that can transmit the disease. • The people who are most exposed to the tsetse fly are in rural populations dependent on agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry, or hunting.
31 species and subspecies of tsetse flied are under the genus Glossina. • Two kinds of African Trypanosomiasis • Diagnosis and treatment of the disease are complex and require specifically skilled staff. • Vector Borne disease. • A serious parasitic disease. • Causes acute or chronic infection in the central nervous system. • An individuals risk for infection increases as the number of bites increase.
T.b.g. is found in forests and areas of high vegetation by rivers and waterholes. • T.b.r. is found in woodland and savannah areas. • Chad is one of the many countries where sleeping sickness occurs. • There are ways to prevent getting sleeping sickness.
Sources • www.pha-aspc.gc.ca/tmp-pmv/info/af_tru[am-end.php • www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs259/en/
BY: CHEYENNE AND LINDSEY Health 4th period