leishmaniasis n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Leishmaniasis PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Leishmaniasis

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 32

Leishmaniasis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 714 Views
  • Uploaded on

Leishmaniasis . Leishmania donovani (complex) (VL) Leishmania tropica (CL) Leishmania major (CL) Leishmania aethiopica (CL) Leishmania mexicana (Complex) (CL) Leishmania brazilliensis (complex) (MCL) Leishmania peruriana. Phylum Order Family Genus. Sarcomastigophora Kinetoplastida

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Leishmaniasis


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis

Leishmania donovani (complex) (VL)

Leishmania tropica (CL)

Leishmania major (CL)

Leishmania aethiopica (CL)

Leishmania mexicana (Complex) (CL)

Leishmania brazilliensis (complex) (MCL)

Leishmania peruriana

the parasite
Phylum

Order

Family

Genus

Sarcomastigophora

Kinetoplastida

Trypanosomatidae

Leishmania

The Parasite
morphology
Promasitogte

Insect

Motile

Midgut

Amastigote

Mammalian stage

Non-motile

Intracellular

Morphology

Digenetic Life Cycle

morphology1
Promastigote

Amastigote

Morphology

Flagella

Kinetoplast

Golgi

Nucleus

Cytoskeleton

slide6
Amastigotes (*) of Leishmania donovani in the cells of a spleen.  The individual amastigotes measure approximately 1 µm in diameter. 
slide9
Leishmania (Leishman-Donovan or LD bodies). Lying in macrophage cells from liver. Giemsa. ×12000. Enlarged by 9.6.
life cycle
Life cycle
  • The organism is transmitted by the bite of several species of blood-feeding sand flies (Phlebotomus) which carries the promastigote in the anterior gut and pharynx. It gains access to mononuclear phagocytes where it transform into amastogotes and divides until the infected cell ruptures. The released organisms infect other cells. The sandfly acquires the organisms during the blood meal, the amastigotes transform into flagellate promastigotes and multiply in the gut until the anterior gut and pharynx are packed. Dogs and rodents are common reservoirs.
mammalian hosts
Rodents

Gerbils

Hyraxes

Bats

Porcupines

Opossums

Sloths

Primates

Dogs

Foxes

Anteaters

. . . . .

Mammalian Hosts
vectors
Vectors

Phlebotomine Sandflies

6 genera world wide distribution

Phlebotomus & Lutzomia

500 species

Females Haematophagus

Males sap feeders

clinical disease
Visceral

Fatal (90% untreated)

Liver

Spleen

Bone marrow

Cutaneous

Generally Self- healing

Skin

Mucous membranes

Clinical Disease

SPECTRUM OF DISEASE

initial infection
Initial Infection
  • Similar in all species
  • Inoculation of promastigotes
  • Inflammation & chemotaxis
  • Receptor mediated phagocytosis

Promastigote Amasitgote

Transformation

parasite spread
Parasite Spread

Macrophage lysis & parasite release

Lymphatic spread

Blood spread

Target organs

Skin/lymph nodes/spleen/liver/

bone marrow

visceral leishmaniasis
1903

1920

1931

William Leishman

Pentavalent antimony

Experimental transmission

Visceral Leishmaniasis

Leishmania donovani (Complex)

L.d. archibaldi - L.d.chagasi - L.d.donovani - Ld.infantum

vl clinical manifestation
VL - Clinical Manifestation

Variable - Incubation 3-100+ weeks

Lowgrade fever

Hepato-splenomegaly

Bone marrow hyperplasia

Anemia, Leucopenia & Cachexia

Hypergammaglobulinnemia

Epistaxis , Proteinuria, Hematuria

slide21
Profile view of a teenage boy suffering from visceral leishmaniasis. The boy exhibits splenomegaly, distended abdomen and severe muscle wasting. 
slide22
A 12-year-old boy suffering from visceral leishmaniasis. The boy exhibits splenomegaly and severe muscle wasting.
post kala azar dermal leishmanoid
Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmanoid

Normally develops <2 years after recovery

Recrudescence

Restricted to skin

Rare but varies geographically

infection
INFECTION

Sub-clinical or inapparent infection

RecoveryDeath

Immune to reinfection Concurrent infection

PKDL

diagnosis
Diagnosis

Clinical signs & symptoms

Hypergammaglobulinemia

ELISA/Formol gel

Bone marrow biopsy

Spleen or liver biopsy

Culture & Histology

speciation
Speciation
  • Similar morphology
  • Isoenzyme profiles - Zymodemes
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • DNA hybridisation - PCR
treatment
Treatment

Good nursing

Diet

Antibiotics

Pentavalent antimony

Pentamidine

New drugs - New delivery

control
Control
  • Vector control
  • Reservoir control
  • Treatment of active cases
  • Vaccination