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Chapter 3: The CELL. Cell Anatomy Plasma Membrane and Function Cell Organelles and Function. Cell Theory. Hooke in 1663, observed cork (plant): named the cell Pasteur’s work with bacteria ~ 1860 disproved idea of spontaneous generation (living things arise from nonliving matter).

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chapter 3 the cell
Chapter 3: The CELL
  • Cell Anatomy
  • Plasma Membrane and Function
  • Cell Organelles and Function
cell theory
Cell Theory
  • Hooke in 1663, observed cork (plant): named the cell
  • Pasteur’s work with bacteria ~ 1860 disproved idea of spontaneous generation (living things arise from nonliving matter)
cell anatomy
Cell Anatomy
  • Cell Anatomy
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Cytoplasm- cytosol and organelles
  • Organelles (small organs)
plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane
  • Fluid mosaic, protein icebergs in a sea of fat.
    • motion of these molecules creates the benefit of self repair
  • Selective Permeability
    • GO: Lipid solubility, no charge, small size
    • STOP: Charge, large size
  • Fat
    • Phospholipid Bilayer
      • Cholesterol, glycolipids
    • hydrophilic heads (phosphate) on each side
    • hydrophobic tails in the center
  • Proteins
    • Transmembrane and peripheral
    • Glycoproteins- receptors are the cell’s ID
    • Protein channels: transport large things
specialized cells


Specialized Cells


  • Microvilli- extensions of plasma membrane
  • Cilia At Cell Surface
  • Flagellum is a long whip like structure that is identical to that of a cilium
    • Only functional flagellum in humans is the _________


a law of nature
  • Nature likes equality
  • A solution is composed of a solvent and solute
    • An example would be water and salt respectively
  • Concentration Gradient: A solution or solute moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  • HIGH TO LOW is called going with (or down) the concentration gradient and requires no energy
  • To go against (or up) the concentration gradient requires lots of energy (Because it is against nature)
membrane physiology
Membrane Physiology
  • Nerve cells look like an anteater called an Aardvark
  • The electrical charge outside of the nerve cell at resting is _________
  • As permeability changes that polarity of the plasma membrane shifts form _____ on the inside to _______ on the outside
  • Our nerves work using action potentials that are created bythe SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
    • Cell has a NaCK for keeping Na+ out, K+ in
      • NaCK = Na is outside the Cell and K is inside
  • Homework: Why is the cell + on the outside and – on the inside when we use Na+ and K+?
effects of different solutions on cells
Effects of Different Solutions on Cells.
  • Tonicity – the ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure
  • HYPOTONIC solution- causes cells to swell (a hippO swells in water)
    • Example- distilled water
  • HYPERTONIC solution- causes cells to shrink
    • Example- sea water
  • ISOTONIC solution- the cell is not effected
    • Example- Saline solution
effects of tonicity on rbcs
Effects of Tonicity on RBCs

_____can cause ____ ____Tonic Solution Cell going into ___

facilitated diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
  • Carrier-mediated, passive transport of solute across membrane down its concentration gradient
  • No energy needed, Why?
movement across the membrane
Movement Across the Membrane
    • ENdocytosis (INto Cell)
      • Phagocytosis, cell eating
      • Pinocytosis, cell drinking
      • Receptor- Mediated Endocytosis
    • EXocytosis (EXit Cell)
movement across the membrane16
Movement Across the Membrane


Without energy

With the concentration gradient





With energy

Against the concentration gradient



Keeps tissues free of debris and infectious microorganisms.

organelles in one word
ORGANELLES in one word.
  • Cytoskeleton- scaffolding
  • Centrioles- cell division
  • Rough ER = protein production
  • Smooth ER = fat production
  • Golgi Complex: packaging
  • Lysosomes- garbage collectors
  • Mitochondria- Mighty! ATP production
  • Nucleus: Chromosomes
  • Nucleoli: r-RNA (ribosomes) assembly