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Europe: High Middle Ages. By David, Natalie and Terry. Magna Carta. Imaginary portrait of King John. First introduced in England in 1215 John Lackland, son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane, became King John in 1199 John’s rule was considered unsuccessful:

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europe high middle ages

Europe: High Middle Ages

By David, Natalie and Terry

magna carta
Magna Carta

Imaginary portrait of King John

  • First introduced in England in 1215
  • John Lackland, son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane, became King John in 1199
  • John’s rule was considered unsuccessful:
    • Lost territory to the French and tried unsuccessfully to regain it
    • Involved in a conflict with the Roman Catholic Church and was excommunicated (banned from participating in the Church)
    • Overtaxed his barons to fund his failing military campaigns
magna carta3
Magna Carta

Magna Carta

  • In 1215, angry nobles stormed London and forced King John to sign and place his seal on the Great Charter, or Magna Carta
  • It first limited the power of the king – he had to abide to the same laws as his subjects
  • Stated that all free men were to be judged by their peers – foundations of trial by jury
  • Was declared as law of England and its colonies in 1297 by King Edward I
  • One of the most important documents in English law – formed the basis of English constitution and law for years to come
magna carta4
Magna Carta

King John signing the Magna Carta

Additionally, the Charter promised equal justice, no unreasonable imprisonment and no taxation without representation

The Magna Carta is part of the Canadian Constitution and inspired the United States Constitution

the crusades
The Crusades

Fighting during the Crusades

Christian Crusades lasted from 1095 to 1291

In 1100 AD, the conquering urges of Germanic and Viking warriors were unleashed on Islam with Christian moral authorization

Crusaders pillaged the East, bringing back wealth to Western Europe

Shippers became wealthy transporting Crusaders back and forth

Since Constantine I, Christians went on pilgrimages to the Holy Land of Palestine, where Jesus came from

Although Jerusalem was ruled by the Muslims since 638, Christians were allowed to visit until the 11th century – the Seljuk Turks took over and pilgrimages were banned

the crusades6
The Crusades

Pope Urban II

  • The First Crusade was authorized by Pope Urban II (1088 – 1099)
  • He helped Byzantine Emperor Alexus I in launching the first Crusade
  • In his 1095 speech to the Council of Clermont in France, Pope Urban II urged Christian princes to embark on a crusade to save the Holy Land from the Turks. He combined the ideas of pilgrimage with waging a holy war against infidels (non believers)
  • He granted Crusaders indulgence – a special religious pardon where Crusaders would be forgiven for their sins for fighting the Holy War, and would go directly to heaven for dying in battle
the crusades7
The Crusades

Siege of Antioch

The first group of Crusaders were peasant, and attacked Jews and other Christians as well as infidels. They were killed by the Turks when they reached the Holy Land

5000 priests, workers, knights, prostitutes and lords dressed as Crusaders and seized the cities of Antioch and Jerusalem, setting up three kingdoms: the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the Kingdom of Jerusalem

7 more Crusades followed, but were unsuccessful

In 1291, the Crusaders surrendered and returned home

the crusades8
The Crusades
  • Led to the creation of powerful groups of knights such as the Knights Templar and the Teutonic Knights
  • Europeans adapted parts of Muslim civilization:
    • Learned to bathe regularly
    • Acquired tastes for other foods
    • Began to learn Arabic language and Muslim ideas
    • Replaced the Roman numerals with the Arabic numerals, making math simpler and easier to learn
sources
Sources

Britannia.com, LLC. Monarchs of Britian: John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon28.html>.

Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001.

The Baronial Order of Magna Charta. Magna Carta. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.magnacharta.com/articles/magna.htm>.

The British Library. Magna Carta - the Basics. 18 Dec. 2006 <http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/basics.html>.

The British Monarchy. The Angevins - John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.qmmemorial.gov.uk/output/Page64.asp>.

Unknown Author. The Christian Crusades. 18 Dec. 2006 <http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/bible/crusades.stm>.