Europe: High Middle Ages. By David, Natalie and Terry. Magna Carta. Imaginary portrait of King John. First introduced in England in 1215 John Lackland, son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane, became King John in 1199 John’s rule was considered unsuccessful:
By David, Natalie and Terry
Imaginary portrait of King John
King John signing the Magna Carta
Additionally, the Charter promised equal justice, no unreasonable imprisonment and no taxation without representation
The Magna Carta is part of the Canadian Constitution and inspired the United States Constitution
Fighting during the Crusades
Christian Crusades lasted from 1095 to 1291
In 1100 AD, the conquering urges of Germanic and Viking warriors were unleashed on Islam with Christian moral authorization
Crusaders pillaged the East, bringing back wealth to Western Europe
Shippers became wealthy transporting Crusaders back and forth
Since Constantine I, Christians went on pilgrimages to the Holy Land of Palestine, where Jesus came from
Although Jerusalem was ruled by the Muslims since 638, Christians were allowed to visit until the 11th century – the Seljuk Turks took over and pilgrimages were banned
Pope Urban II
Siege of Antioch
The first group of Crusaders were peasant, and attacked Jews and other Christians as well as infidels. They were killed by the Turks when they reached the Holy Land
5000 priests, workers, knights, prostitutes and lords dressed as Crusaders and seized the cities of Antioch and Jerusalem, setting up three kingdoms: the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the Kingdom of Jerusalem
7 more Crusades followed, but were unsuccessful
In 1291, the Crusaders surrendered and returned home
Britannia.com, LLC. Monarchs of Britian: John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon28.html>.
Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001.
The Baronial Order of Magna Charta. Magna Carta. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.magnacharta.com/articles/magna.htm>.
The British Library. Magna Carta - the Basics. 18 Dec. 2006 <http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/basics.html>.
The British Monarchy. The Angevins - John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.qmmemorial.gov.uk/output/Page64.asp>.
Unknown Author. The Christian Crusades. 18 Dec. 2006 <http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/bible/crusades.stm>.