Digestive System. What is the Digestive System?. Also called the GI Tract or Alimentary Canal The Digestive System is responsible for breaking down foodstuff and converting into energy or using the nutrients in the foodstuff for necessary body functions. Anatomy of the Digestive System.
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- detoxifies the blood.
- stores sugar as GLYCOGEN.
- secretes INSULIN, a hormone that allows glucose to enter the bodies cells.
- also manufactures and secretes GLUCAGON, a hormone that raises blood sugar and SOMATOSTATIN, a hormone which helps regulate sleep.
or / o AND stomat / o refer to the mouth.
IE: stomat / itis -> inflammation of the
or / al -> pertaining to the mouth
both mean TONGUE.
gloss / ectomy -> surgical removal of the tongue
lingu / al -> pertaining to the tongue
dent / ist -> specialist of the teeth
Orth / odont / ist -> specialist that straigtens teeth.
gingiv / itis -> inflammation of the gums
esophag / o -> esophagus
esophag / o / scope -> an instrument to view the esophagus
gastr / o / scopy -> a visual examination of the stomach
pharyng / itis -> inflammation of the throat
pylor / o / tomy -> an incision into the pylorus
an / o -> anus
an / al -> pertaining to the anus
appendic / o -> appendix
append / ectomy -> excision of the appendix
appendic / itis -> inflammation of the appendix
colon / o -> colon
col / o / centesis -> puncture of the colon
colon / o / scope -> instrument to view or examine the colon
duoden / o / stomy -> to form an opening (mouth) in the duodenum
enter / o / pathy -> disease of the intestine
enter / it is -> inflammation of the intestine
ile / o / stomy -> to form an opening (mouth) in the ileum
jejun / o / rrhaphy -> to suture a rupture of the jejunum
proct / o / logist -> specialist or one who studies the rectum
NOTE: there are multiple word roots for many organs.
rect / o / cele -> hernia of the rectum
sigmoid / o / scopy -> a visual examination of the sigmoid colon
Refer to pain.
stomat / o / dynia -> pain in the mouth
NOTE: a combining vowel is not needed when using –algia.
stomat / algia -> pain in the mouth
sial / o
Refers to the salivary glands or saliva.
What does sial / o / rrhea mean?
flow of saliva
What is the literal translation of
Dia / rrhea?
through flow -> frequent passage of watery bowel movements?
The following suffixes all mean the same thing.
-al vertebr / al
-ar vascul / ar
-ary maxill / ary
-ic thromb / ic
When defining a medical word, first define the SUFFIX. Next, look at the beginning of the word (PREFIX or ROOT). Finally, look at the middle of the word (ROOT).
sub / lingu / al
Therefore, sublingual means to something pertaining to the beneath the tongue.
A sublingual dose of nitroglycerin is placed beneath the tongue.
stomat / osis means an abnormality of the mouth.
myc / osis is an abnormal condition of a fungus.
gastr / ic
gastr / itis
gastr / algia
gastr / dynia
gastr / rrhea
All refer to the stomach.
Removal of the stomach
Surgical repair of the esophagus
Instrument to cut the stomach
emesis -> vomit
hemat / emesis -> to vomit blood
NOTE: a combining vowel is NOT needed.
epi - above or upon
epigastric pain is pain above the stomach.
dys - bad, painful, or difficult
dyspepsia literally means painful digestion or “heartburn”
dys / phagia is difficultly swallowing
aer - means air
aer / o / phagia means swallowing air.
infants frequently have this as they suck milk from a bottle.
The small intestine is broken into three parts:
duodenum duoden / o
jejunum jejun / o
ileum ile / o
To form a new opening
First part of small intestine
col / o / rrhaphy -> suture the colon
sigmoid / itis -> inflammation of the
rect / o / stenosis -> a narrowing of the
Combining Form Meaning
Cholangi / o bile vessel
Cholecyst / o gall bladder
Choledoch / o bile duct
Hepat / o liver
Pancreat / o pancreas
Sial / o saliva
Lith / o stone, calculus