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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2 nd edition Chapter 3 Advanced Audio Equipment and Techniques Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2 nd edition Objectives Identify and describe the main operational controls of an audio mixer.

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slide1

Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Chapter 3

Advanced Audio Equipment and Techniques

slide2

Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Objectives

Identify and describe the main operational controls of an audio mixer.

Identify several audio sources for video production and describe the appropriate use of each source.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Objectives

Identify various audio connectors and how they are used in video production.

Explain the processes of audio mixing and audio dubbing.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Objectives

Explain the concept of production music in a video production setting and list several reasons for using production music.

Compose a script for video production.

Produce an audio commercial.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Audio mixer

An audio mixer is an electronic component that allows the audio technician to select and combine audio (sound) sources.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Basic Audio Mixer Features

Microphone inputs - XLR - ¼ inch phone

Line inputs - used for other sound sources - RCA phono - ¼ inch phone (pair)

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Basic Audio Mixer Features

Level Controls

Fader Bar - vertical movement increases/decreases level.

Potentiometer (“pot”) - clockwise or counter-clockwise movement increases/decreases level.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Basic Audio Mixer Features

Volume Unit (VU) meters

LED - lights illuminate as audio level increases.

Analog - needle moves to the right as audio level increases.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Basic Audio Mixer Features

Outputs

Sends final mixed audio to several sources, including recording VCR, public address system, control room monitor, etc.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Basic Audio Mixer Features

Headphone Jack - allows audio technician to hear mixed audio signal, as well as individual audio sources.

Stereo/Mono Switch - allows audio technician to select between stereo (left and right channels) and mono (same sound in both channels) output.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Advanced Audio Mixer Features

Trim - lets the audio technician adjust each individual microphone so that all microphones will perform at the same level.

Balance (Pan) - lets the audio technician send each input to either the right or left channel (stereo audio mixers only.)

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Advanced Audio Mixer Features

Equalization (EQ) - controls the amount of bass, midrange, and treble tones in each audio input.

Cue - sends input sound only to the headphone jack, when audio technician selects “cue” function of headphone jack.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Advanced Audio Mixer Features

Solo - instantly mutes all other sources, creating a single-source audio signal.

Mute - instantly turns-off completely that audio input.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Advanced Audio Mixer Features

Cross-Fader - a fader bar positioned between to input fader bars; increasing one signal, while decreasing the other signal.

Send - an additional pot for each input, that allows the audio technician to “send” only those inputs to a second output.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Advanced Audio Mixer Features

Digital Audio Effects - electronic enhancement to one or all of the inputs. Includes reverb, echo, delay, and other enhancements that are popular with singers.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Audio Sources

VCR – audio from pre-recorded segments, including interviews, opening, and other segments.

CD Player – music, sound effects

Audiocassette Player – music, voice-overs

MP3 Player – created music, legally converted music

Computer – created music, sound effects, computer files

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Audio Mixer Connectors

Quarter-inch Phone - high-impedance microphones, musical instruments, headphones, outputs

RCA Phono (patch cords) - music sources, outputs

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Audio Mixer Connectors

XLR Connector - low-impedance microphones, balanced outputs

1/8-inch Mini - portable electronics (MP3 and CD players), some headphones and microphones

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Audio Mixer Adapters

Adapters change the size/shape of the connector.

A matching line transformer changes the impedance (and often the size/shape as well.)

Image provided courtesy of Shure Incorporated.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

The Audio Dub Process

  • Audio dubbing erases the existing audio track, and replaces it with a new audio track.
  • “Audio dub” is a function on some VCRs. Some VCRs have the audio dub function, and others do not.
  • To audio dub
    • Cue the video to the start of the program.
    • Engage the audio dub function.
    • Record your new sound.
    • Rewind, listen, and repeat if necessary.
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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Mixing Voice and Music

Proper microphone placement is 6 to 8 inches from the announcer.

Set the Output Master to about 75%.

Ask the announcer to read the script. Adjust the Output Master VU meter to 100% VU.

Play the background music. Ask the announcer to read the script as the background music plays. Use headphones to determine the proper music/microphone mix.

Decrease to Output Master so that the total audio (voice and music) approaches 100% VU.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Using Production Music

Production music is anonymous. No unwanted memories or emotions are associated with the music.

Production music allows for theme music. Your selection will be the theme song for your show or segment.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Using Production Music

Production music is created for narration. Dominant singing or instruments will not overpower your script.

Production music has acceptable content – no bad language or suggestive lyrics.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Using Production Music

Production music creates a professional atmosphere in your studio. Use the music that real TV stations use.

Production music is available in various lengths. Choose shorter versions for brief projects.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Making Your Own Production Music

Loops-based Software

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Making Your Own Production Music

SmartSound Software

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Scriptwriting Tips

The first sentence tells the story.

Use the active voice whenever possible.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Scriptwriting Tips

Use creative verbs.

Use a “people” angle.

Don’t headline.

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Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition

Scriptwriting Tips

Don’t start a sentence with “this is” or “here are.”

Read the script aloud. Make sure it makes sense!