UNIT 2 INSTITUTIONAL/SOCIAL COMMUNICATION PROMOTERS: the state, local authorities, politicians, public institutions ( e.g. universities, public libraries, post offices), charities (operational or campaigning), Nonprofit Organisations, Non-Governmental Organisations NGO (e.g. Amnesty International, Medicins sans frontières) lo stato; enti locali; esponenti politici; istituzioni pubbliche e private; volontariato; organizzazioni senza scopo di lucro, Organizzazioni non-governative; ONG RECEIVERS : citizens, supporters, members, consumers, visitors cittadini, sostenitori, membri, consumatori, visitatori
UNIT 2 INSTITUTIONAL / SOCIAL COMMUNICATION FIELDS COVERED: citizens’ rights and duties (e.g. pensions, taxes), the great tragedies of humanity (e.g. poverty, child mortality); health (e.g. organ donation, AIDS), environment preservation (e.g. recycling), education, political and cultural life, recreational activities ( e.g sport) AIMS : fund raising, publicizing services and facilities, informing and creating awareness, warning
INSTITUTIONAL/SOCIAL COMMUNICATION • GENRES and CONTEXTS: documents and leaflets in public offices, web sites, hoardings (Br.E) and billboards (Am.E.) in the streets, ads in the Press and on TV, speeches, • LINGUISTIC AND DISCOURSAL FEATURES: from clear and precise official legal documents to communicative strategies used in advertising or political communication
A one-page example of social communication (or humanitarian advertising) from The Financial Times,8th March 2007 Where does a litre of water cost more than in Central London? In a developing country slum WATERThe water crisis hits the poor the hardest - by far. In some poor countries water costs 5 to 10 times more than in richest ones ALERT The poorer you are, the more you pay. To put water on everyone’s lips. Click on www.UNDP.ORG
TEXT 8 Barack Obama Speech – Address to Joint Session of Congress, Delivered on February 24, 2009 Speech, written-to-be spoken Argumentative structure Paragraphs 1,2,3,4: Introducing the topic. Value of a good education. Need to go beyond a high school diploma and reduce the high dropout rates. Paragraphs 5: Some resources have already been provided Paragraphs 6-7: Need for reform. Americans should study - or train for a career- longer Paragraphs 8-9: People who will accept to “give back” to their community will be helped to pay tuition. Successful reform needs parents’ commitment
TEXT 8 Rhetorical/Textual choices Use of personal pronouns and possessive adjectives: we/us, our, you/your/I/ me Positive expressions Metaphors Parallelism The lexical field of education in the States
Barack Obama Speech – Address to Joint Session of Congress, Delivered on February 24, 2009 1…..The third challenge we must address is the urgent need to expand the promise of education in America. • In a global economy where the most valuable skill you can sell is your knowledge,a good education is no longer just a pathway to opportunity – it is a pre-requisite. • Right now, three-quarters of the fastest-growing occupations require more than a high school diploma. And yet, just over half of our citizens have that level of education. We have one of the highest high school dropout rates of any industrialized nation. And half of the students who begin college never finish. 4. This is a prescription for economic decline, because we know the countries that out-teach us today will out-compete us tomorrow. That is why it will be the goal of this administration to ensure that every child has access to a complete and competitive education – from the day they are born to the day they begin a career.
(follows) 5 Already, we have made an historic investment in education through the economic recovery plan. We have dramatically expandedearly childhood education and will continue to improve its quality, because we know that the most formative learning comes in those first years of life. Wehave made college affordable for nearly seven million more students. And we have provided the resources necessaryto prevent painful cuts and teacher layoffs that would set back our children’s progress.
(follows) 6. But we know that our schools don’t just need more resources. They need more reform. That is why this budget creates new incentives for teacher performance; pathways for advancement, and rewards for success. We’ll invest ininnovative programs that are already helping schools meet high standardsand close achievement gaps. And wewill expand our commitment to charter schools. 7. It is our responsibility as lawmakers and educators to make this system work. But it is the responsibility of every citizen to participate in it. And so tonight, I ask every American to commit to at least one year or more of higher education or career training. This can be community college or a four-year school; vocational training or an apprenticeship. But whatever the training may be, every American will need to get more than a high school diploma. And dropping out of high school is no longer an option. It’s not just quitting on yourself, it’s quitting on your country – and this country needs and values the talents of every American. That is why we will provide the support necessary for you to complete college and meet a new goal: by 2020, America will once again have the highest proportion of college graduates in the world.
(follows) • I know that the price of tuition is higher than ever, which is why if you are willing to volunteer in your neighborhood or give back to your community or serve your country, we will make sure that you can afford a higher education. And to encourage a renewed spirit of national service for this and future generations, I ask this Congress to send me the bipartisan legislation that bears the name of Senator Orrin Hatch as well as an American who has never stopped asking what he can do for his country –– Senator Edward Kennedy • These education policies will open the doors of opportunity for our children. But it is up to us to ensure they walk through them. In the end, there is no program or policy that can substitute for a mother or father who will attend those parent/teacher conferences, or help with homework after dinner, or turn off the TV, put away the video games, and read to their child. I speak to you not just as a President, but as a father when I say that responsibility for our children's education must begin at home….
TEXT 9 President Obama’s Inaugural Speech2Oth January 2009.Some textual and rhetorical characteristics References to American historical and cultural legacy : 44 Americans have taken the presidential oath; We the People; founding documents; Concord and Gettysburg, Normandy and Khe Sahn; Our Founding Fathers drafted a charter; Arlington; the bitter swill of the civil war and segregation; a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath; our values… hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism; In the year of America’s birth, our revolution Religious references: in the words of Scripture…; God-given promise; “patchwork heritage”… a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus – and non-believers; God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny;…with eyes fixed on the horizon and God’s grace upon us Metaphors: journey (e.g. across the ocean, the West, refuse to let this journey end, with eyes fixed on the horizon), weather and natural phenomena (e.g. tides, storms, icy currents, in the coldest of months… ), harness ( e.g. the sun and the wind and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories) Rhetoric built on repeated patterns (with variations) For us, they packed…For us, they toiled… For us, they fought… To the Muslim world… To those leaders around the globe…To those who cling to power…. To the people of poor nations…
OBAMA’S Inaugural Speech versus Bush’s Inaugural speech (2005) Results of a quantitative corpus-based analysis OBAMA : more occurrences of “we”, “us” and “our” may signal “togetherness” and sense of community BUSH: more occurrences of the words “liberty” and “freedom”
OBAMA’S Inaugural Speech Qualitative analysis of “freedom” and “liberty” only because they are guardians of our liberty, but because they embody the spirit of service ain destiny. This is the meaning of our liberty and our creed - why men and women and c the long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom. For us, they packed up their few world Its power to generate wealth and expand freedom is unmatched, but this crisis has reminded us us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations
Bush’s Inaugural Speech in 2005Use of “freedom” • half century, America defended our own freedom by standing watch on distant borders. A • olerant, and that is the force of human freedom. We are led, by events and common sens • peace in our world is the expansion of freedom in all the world. America's vital inte • find their own voice, attain their own freedom, and make their own way. The great obj • able, and we will use it confidently in freedom's cause. My most solemn duty is to pro • oppression, which is always wrong, and freedom, which is eternally right. America will • e long run, there is no justice without freedom, and there can be no human rights witho • ades defined by the swiftest advance of freedom ever seen, is an odd time for doubt. Am • of our ideals. Eventually, the call of freedom comes to every mind and every soul. We • as Abraham Lincoln did: "Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves • among free nations is a primary goal of freedom's enemies. The concerted effort of free • n, tens of millions have achieved their freedom. And as hope kindles hope, millions mor • gress, and one day this untamed fire of freedom will reach the darkest corners of our w • home - the unfinished work of American freedom. In a world moving toward liberty, we a • mise of liberty. In America's ideal of freedom, citizens find the dignity and security • will give our fellow Americans greater freedom from want and fear, and make our societ • just and equal. In America's ideal of freedom, the public interest depends on private • ay, and forever. In America's ideal of freedom, the exercise of rights is ennobled by • because we cannot carry the message of freedom and the baggage of bigotry at the same • Did our generation advance the cause of freedom? And did our character bring credit to • re bound to one another in the cause of freedom. We have known divisions, which must be • unity and fellowship of our nation when freedom came under attack, and our response cam • e confidence in the eventual triumph of freedom. Not because history runs on the wheels • as He wills. We have confidence because freedom is the permanent hope of mankind, the h • greatest achievements in the history of freedom. May God bless you, and may He watch o
Bush’s Inaugural Speech in 2005Use of “liberty” • ry also has a visible direction, set by liberty and the Author of Liberty. When the De • re can be no human rights without human liberty. Some, I know, have questioned the glo • nse, to one conclusion: The survival of liberty in our land increasingly depends on the • increasingly depends on the success of liberty in other lands. The best hope for peace • w, have questioned the global appeal of liberty - though this time in history, four dec • ined to show the meaning and promise of liberty. In America's ideal of freedom, citize • ence. This is the broader definition of liberty that motivated the Homestead Act, the S • in wave upon wave for a union based on liberty; when citizens marched in peaceful outr • erica, in this young century, proclaims liberty throughout all the world, and to all th • rican freedom. In a world moving toward liberty, we are determined to show the meaning • our oppressors. When you stand for your liberty, we will stand with you. Democratic re
The American Constitution “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”
FREEDOM 1.The condition of being free; the power to act or speak or think without externally imposed restraints. 2. Immunity from an obligation or duty. Also free (adjective) To free ( verb LIBERTY 1. Immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence. 2. Freedom of choice: "liberty of opinion"; "liberty of worship"; "liberty--perfect liberty--to think or feel or do just as one pleases"; "at liberty to choose whatever occupation one wishes". 3. Personal freedom from servitude or confinement or oppression. 4. Leave granted to a sailor or naval officer. 5. An act of undue intimacy Also in the plural “liberties” From The Webster’s on line Dictionary
From the Latin libertas In the political American tradition, it is linked to the concept of “independence”. The government is the guardian of liberty Less frequent in common usage (878 occurrences in the Brown Corpus) ‘Liberty’ and ‘freedom’ tend to be used interchangeably in current political discourse Some collocations: The statue of liberty, civil liberties From the Germanic “free” , linked to “friend” In the political American tradition, it stresses common and shared political, economic and social rights More frequent in common usage (3,916 occurrences in the Brown Corpus) ‘Liberty’ and ‘freedom’ tend to be used interchangeably in current political discourse Some collocations: freedom of choice, freedom of speech, freedom from want and fear LIBERTY FREEDOM