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Social Marketing

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  1. Colorado Prevention Partners Presenter Chuck Klevgaard Social Marketing Theory / Logic / Implementation

  2. Modules • Theory of Social Marketing • Setting Communication Goals • Utilizing The Blueprint - SPF • Utilizing Data to Drive and Evaluate • A Framework for Developing a Cohesive Communication Plan

  3. Objectives Participants will be able to: • Describe the theory of Social Marketing • List at least four ways to segment an audience • Define the 4Ps (product, price, place, promotion). • Recognize examples of the 4Ps in selected radio PSAs. • Utilize a planning process that incorporates the Strategic Prevention Framework • Describe the importance of evaluating communication programs, even with resource constraints.

  4. What is Social Marketing • Advertising and marketing are major industries in our society, accounting for billions of dollars in expenditures. • Tobacco and alcoholic beverage industries, among others, spend this money on sophisticated marketing strategies to persuade people to buy their products. Central Region

  5. What is Social Marketing • These same marketing techniques can be used to discourage smoking and drinking and other drug abuse. • When commercial marketing techniques are adapted to communications about health and social issues, the process is known as social marketing. Central Region

  6. Differences: Between Commercial and Social Marketing • Commercial Marketing: • Product-focused • Benefits marketer/producer • “do to” customers • Social Marketing: • Customer-focused • Benefits customer/community • “do with” customers Central Region

  7. The Goal of Social Marketing Human behavior change is the bottom line How do we create change Central Region

  8. Tobacco UseWhy Did So Many Quit ? Information Skills Norms Motivation Price Policy

  9. Seat BeltsWhy so many buckled up? Information Skills Norms Motivation Laws Enforcement

  10. Chicken or the Egg ? • Does Social Policy change norms or do changes in norms lead to policy change? • One approach to prevention seeks to modify the elements or conditions in our social environment that condone / encourage unhealthy or risky behavior or promote healthy behavior.

  11. Synergy • Policy :provides direction for the campaign strategy • Social Marketing:targets the specific behavior to encourage or discourage • Branding:brings the two together to create synergy Synergy refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents.

  12. How is Social Marketing Used in PreventionSample Logic Model : Tobacco Problem Strategies Intermediate Outcomes Long Term Outcomes Tobacco use by youth Support Policies to Reduce Initiation of Tobacco _________ Increased Enforcement of Access Policy _________ Controls on Marketing _________ Education and Skills Programs Increased Price for Tobacco _________ Decreased Access to Tobacco _________ Reduced Susceptibility to Tobacco Use _________ Increased knowledge / Attitudes Toward Tobacco Use Reduced Initiation of Tobacco Use _________ Reduced Tobacco use Prevalence Among Youth People

  13. Tobacco Social Marketing Click here to see your Squirt Alert. undefined

  14. How is Social Marketing Used in Prevention Sample Logic Model : Alcohol Problem Strategies Intermediate Outcomes Long Term Outcomes Increased Enforcement _________ Reduced Susceptibility to Alcohol Use _________ Increase in Family Level Policy and Enforcement Decreased Access to Alcohol _________ Reduced Initiation of Alcohol Use _________ Reduced Alcohol use Prevalence Youth Have Easy Access to Alcohol at Bars Restaurants and Package Stores Compliance Checks ________ Shoulder Taps ________ Social Host Enforcement ________ Social Marketing ________ Safe Homes Youth Have Easy Access to Alcohol from Friends, Family and 21-25 Year Olds Who Purchase

  15. Why Social Marketing • Well-designed campaigns, Dr. Cappella noted, can affect behavior, as demonstrated by research on smoking and drug use among teens. • “For example, an antimarijuana public service announcement (PSA) campaign developed by NIDA-supported researchers at the University of Kentucky in Lexington decreased marijuana use by more than 25 percent among high-sensation-seeking adolescents -- a group particularly at risk for drug abuse.” (See "Television Public Service Announcements Decrease Marijuana Use in Targeted Teens.") The PSAs included messages especially designed to appeal to the sensation-seeking teens and ran for 4 months during TV programs popular with this group.

  16. What Social Marketing Can Do • Create awareness and interest • Change attitudes and conditions • Motivate people to want to change their behavior • Empower people to act • Prevent backsliding

  17. 7 StepsPutting It All Together • Assessment • Step 1: Communication Objective • Capacity • Planning • Step 2: Planning • Step 3: Design • Step 4: Pre-testing • Implementation • Step 5: Implementing • Step 6: Monitoring • Evaluation • Step 7: Evaluation Northeast Region

  18. Step 1: Analysis • Define the issue you are planning to address • Use Formative Research (with a targeted strategy) • Identify resources or organizations that can help you • Identify and ally with the community services or other resources your customers can access for help Assessment Central Region

  19. Step 1: AnalysisCommunications Objective Define your communications objective • one-sentence description • expected behavior outcome • measurable outcomes Assessment Central Region

  20. Assessment Communication ObjectivesThe Evidence For Health Communication • Increase awareness and impart information about a health issue (Sample Cambridge) • Increase awareness about a new or existing or needed law • Publicize a community-based program • Reinforce instruction taught in schools or community-based organizations • A campaign can also be used to strengthen and reinforce prevention messages that youth receive in school and other settings

  21. Assessment Communication ObjectivesThe Evidence For Health Communication • Advocacy For Healthy Public Policy As A Health Promotion Technology Michael McCubbin, Ph.D., Ronald Labonte, Ph.D., Bernadette Dallaire, Ph.D.MS Word, 177KB • Community development: How effective is it as an approach in health promotion?John Raeburn, Tim CorbettMS Word, 187 KB • Effectiveness of Mass Media Health Campaigns Slides and PaperVicki FreimuthPowerPoint, 207KB and MS Word, 48KB • Generalizing From Idiosyncratic Research to "Best Practices" in other Settings and PopulationsLawrence GreenMS Word, 91 KB • Promoting Health Through Organizational ChangeHarvey Skinner  Ph.DMS Word, 86 KB • Reviewing the Evidence on the Effectiveness of Health Education: Methodological ConsiderationsAlison TaubMS Word, 118 KB • The Effectiveness of Policy in Health Promotion and AppendixNic DoyleMS Word, 133 KB and 62KB

  22. Assessment Step 1: Example We will increase by 50% the number of middle school parents who complete next semester’s “Parenting for Prevention” seminar. Central Region

  23. Assessment Example Parents/caregivers will understand social host laws and agree not to serve alcohol to minors in their homes. Central Region

  24. Assessment Social Host Campaigns

  25. Assessment Example Parents/caregivers work to reduce underage access to alcohol Central Region

  26. Assessment Example Parents and other adults will understand the rationale for and support the drinking age. Central Region

  27. Assessment Example Parents/caregivers will talk with their preteens about drinking. Central Region

  28. Assessment National Campaigns

  29. Planning Step 2: Planning • Segment Audience • Allocate resources • Do project management planning • Strategy for each customer segment Central Region

  30. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience • Be as specific as possible about the group you will be targeting and learn as much as you can about them. • For example, you might describe a group as “heterosexual males between the ages of 14 and 18 who smoke.” • You will need to understand their attitudes, feelings, beliefs, values, motivation, and culture—all the factors that might influence their behavior. Northeast Region

  31. Planning Step 2: PlanningFive Ways to Segment Your Audience • Demographic Factors • Age, gender, educational attainment, socio-economic, ethnic background • School attending • Neighborhood residing • Type of Risk or Protective Factors • Parenting status • Age of children • Location of children • Drinking or Drug Use Status • Substance Used Northeast Region

  32. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience • Instead of selling products, social marketers sell knowledge and awareness of health risks, • or they market the benefits of certain health behaviors, such as avoiding alcohol and other drugs by youth, in ways that will appeal to this target audience. Central Region

  33. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience • Information about the target audience includes not only needs and perceptions, but also knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding alcohol and other drugs; values; age; gender; educational background; income; and cultural and ethnic background. Central Region

  34. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience In some cases the target audience is the affected population. For example, if our social marketing campaign attempts to convince smokers to quit for the improvement of their health, the affected population is our target audience. In other cases, we target an audience which is not the population directly affected by the problem.For example, a campaign might attempt to deliver a message to bartenders (the target audience to call taxicabs for intoxicated patrons (the affected population) who will potentially be involved in auto collisions while intoxicated. Effective social marketing campaigns often have multiple target audiences, which usually include the affected population and other individuals and groups which influence the environment of the affected population. Northeast Region

  35. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience • The description of the target audience becomes the basis for making decisions about what message to communicate, how and where to communicate it, and what appeal to use. Central Region

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  38. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience Secondary Audience: Paying Client • Agency • Foundation • Donors • Funders Central Region

  39. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience Gatekeepers • School officials • Company management • Government officials Central Region

  40. Planning Step 2: PlanningDefine Your Audience Phantom or Unintended Audiences • General public • Taxpayers • Politicians • Opposition • Youth Central Region

  41. Planning Step 3: Design • Plan and design needed support • Sample Blueprint Central Region

  42. Planning Step 3: DesignDetermine the Message • Social Marketing Message Must: • Capture the audience • Be meaningful • Provide one, small practical step Central Region


  44. Planning Step 3 DesignIdentify Benefits • Recognizing that competing behaviors are a major factor in customer behavior • Old habits • Social pressure • Lack of Information • Opposing cultural values Central Region

  45. Planning Step 3 Design:Define current attitudes and beliefs of the target audience • Benefits and costs • Concerns about reactions • Competing behaviors • Misconceptions Central Region

  46. Planning Step 3 Design:Identify Benefits • Emphasize problems with competing behaviors or emphasize benefits gained by adopting new behavior Central Region

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