Written Communication The Communication Process and Written Communication Written communication differs from oral communication in that : It is more likely to involve creative effort It has longer cycles It usually has fewer cycles
Plan-Write –Revise Approach Plan your writing Need for Planning- Planning answer us the following questions: What do we want to accomplish? How can it best be accomplish? We prepare both routine and non routine messages Daily activities; accepting an invitation; commending an employee, responding to a customer’s request; requesting for additional information Routine Message Employee performance appraisal, a grievance response, a proposal for a new product, and a progress report Non-routine Message
Routine Message Non-routine Message Routine message are easier to write than non-routine message . Non-routine message are not written in response to ordinary daily activities. No one should expect to write non-routine messages quickly or in one draft. Writers who have developed good writing habits can complete routine messages in one draft If the message is routine or simple , we may not need to put our planning steps in writing at all; with experience we may be able to plan the entire message mentally If the message is non-routine or difficult, w should make complete notes during the planning stage, followed outline. Steps in Planning • To read the correspondence carefully • Annotate by underlining or highlighting key points • If necessary , we can make notes or develop an outline • on a separate sheet • Obtain previous correspondence or other necessary • information before begin to write
Write Why am I writing? How shall I present my message? What background information do I need? Where shall I tell my reader the unpleasant news? Who needs to have this information? We should also check the arrangement of the information within the message to be sure that the information appears in the order of its importance or in the order in which you want the reader to receive the information. Revise Revision means being objective about our writing and analyzing the message in order to strengthen it . It means being critical, even when we think we have written masterpiece
Worrying Revising Planning Draft 15% 10% 45% 25% 5% Writing Draft Proofreading Writing process time
Principles of effective writing Effective writing use the five C’s of writing Clear Concise Complete Correct Courteous Is the Message Clear Have we clarified in our own mind what we want to say before we begin to write? Will our reader understand what we are trying to communicate? Unclear I can recommended him as an employee without qualification Clear I can recommend him as a highly qualified employee
Is the Message Concise Eliminate irrelevant and unnecessary words. Business writing should convey messages as efficiently as possible. The message should be brief, as long as clarity and courtesy are not sacrificed in the process. Have I used only the essential words ? Have I included the information necessary for my reader understanding? Wordy Have you as yet had an opportunity to make a decision regarding the job offer we spoke about by phone several weeks ago Concise Have you decided to accept our job offer?
Is the Message Complete? Complete writing involves thinking about your reader and the reader’s purpose. We must also consider how much information the reader require to have his or her questions answered or to understand the intended message. Incomplete We plan to meet on Tuesday at 8 in the conference room. Complete We will meet at 8 a.m. Tuesday. April 16 in the conference room in Sonargaon Hotel
Is the message Correct? Is the information factual? Is the message grammatically correct? To ensure that the message is correct, pay attention to details. Learn and practice proofreading techniques. Check for typical errors, including errors about time, place, and people. Refer to any previous correspondence and verify information. You will not be effected by his change. Incorrect You will not be affected by this change. Correct
Is the message courteous? Letters convey the company’s image as well as the writer’s to people outside the organization. Letter must convey the same tone of courtesy and respect that would be expressed in face-to-face communication. Discourteous I do not believe you have made an attempt to pay your bill. If you have a good reason, you certainly have not communicated it to us. Courteous You undoubtedly have a good reason for being unable to meet your obligation. If you wish to arrange a payment schedule, please phone me . If not, may we expect your check for the balance by July 31st.
Suggestions for selecting word • Selecting the right words depends on : • Our ability to use language • Our knowledge of the reader • Our good judgment
“Simplicity in writing .”Reason- First: Many of us tend to write at too difficult a level. Instead of being ourselves we change our character when we write. Rather than being friendly, normal people, we become cold and stiff. We work to use big words and complex structure. Second : The writer usually knows the subject of the message better than the reader. Thus, the two are not equally equipped to communicate on that matter. If the writer does not work at reducing the message to the reader’s level, communication will be difficult. Third: According to the readability research writing slightly below the reader’s level of understanding communicates best.
Use Familiar Words Every day word- use in every day conversation The words with sharp and clear meaning . We should avoid the stiff, more difficult word that do not communicate so precisely or quickly. Difficult word are not all bad. Use them when they fit our needs and are understood. Unfamiliar words Endeavor Terminate The conclusion ascertained from a perusal of pertinent data is that a lucrative market exists for the product Familiar Words Try End The data studied show that the products in good demand
Choose Short Words Generally short words communicate better than long words. A heavy use of long words- even long words that are understood- leaves an impression of difficulty that hinders communication. All short words are not easy and not all long words are hard. Example : Gybe - short word but unknown Hippopotamus , automobile, bicycle, etc.- long word but known Short Words They agreed to quit business. Final action was taken after the reporting date. Long Words They acceded to the proposition to terminate business. Definitive action was effected subsequent to the reporting date.
Use technical words and Acronyms with Caution Avoid Covered employment Cerebral vascular accident Use Employment covered by social security Little stroke Initials ( including acronyms) should be used with caution. Some initials such as IBM, are widely recognized, others, such as XML (extensible markup language), are not. BCS – Bangladesh Computer Society BCS – Bangladesh Civil Service
Use Active Voice Prefer the active voice to the passive voice. In active voice, the subject does the action. In passive voice, it receives the action. Active voice is stronger and shorter. Writing is more interesting and communicates better when it uses active voice. Passive The result were reported in our July 9 letter. The policy has been supported by our union. The office will be inspected by Mr. Hall Active We reported the result in our July 9 letter. Our union supported this policy. Mr. Hall inspect the office.
Sometimes passive voice is preferable. Passive is better when the doer of the action is not important. Passive voice properly de-emphasizes the doer. Example: Advertising is often criticized for its effect on price. Petroleum is refined in Texas. Passive voice may enable us to avoid accusing our reader of an action. Example;: The damaged was caused by exposing the material to sunlight. The color desired was not specified in your order.
Passive voice also may be preferable when the performer is unknown. Example : During the past year, the equipment has been sabotaged seven times. Anonymous complaints have been received. Passive voice is also better when the write prefers not to name the performer. Example: The interviews were conducted on weekdays between noon and 6pm Two complaints have been made about you.
Use Slang and Popular Clichés with Caution • At any given time in any society some slang words and clichés are in vogue. • They may convey a desired effect in a communication. But they are be likely to be meaningful only for the moment. • We should use such expressions sparingly and always only in informal communication with people who know and appreciate them.
Select Word with Right Strength and Vigor In a way, word are like people ; they have personalities. Some word strong and vigorous. Some are weak and dull. And some fall between extremes. Good writer know these differences, and they use them carefully. They use the words that do the best job of carrying the intended meaning . As a rule they make the stronger word stand out .
Selecting words with just the right personalities requires : • Learn language well – that we learn to distinguish shades of difference in the meanings of words. • Example: • Tycoon > Eminently successful business person • Bear market > Generally declining market • Boom > A period business of prosperity • Mother > Female Parent
We will not always want the stronger and most vigorous words. Sometimes , for good reason, we will choose weaker ones. • Example : • “Bill” (Strong but has harsh meaning in some minds) we may prefer “statement” • The same goes for : debt and obligation, die and passed on, labor boss and union official , fired and dismissed.
We should keep in mind that “verb” is the stronger part of speech. Second is the “noun”. Verb are action words, and action carries interest. Noun are the doers of action – the heroes of the sentence. Thus, they also attract attention. • “Adjectives” and “adverb” are weak words. They add length and distract from the key words, the nouns and the verbs. So, we should use them sparingly.
Use Concrete Language Good business communication is marked by words that from sharp and clear meanings in the mind. These are the concrete words. Concrete is opposite of abstract. Abstract words are vague. In contrast , concrete words stand for things the reader can see, feel, taste, or smell. Concrete word hold interest, for they refer to the reader’s experience.
Concreteness also involves how we put words together. Exact and specific wordings are concrete.; general and vague wordings are abstract. Example : Abstract Concrete A significant loss A 53% loss Good attendance record 100 % attendance record In the near future By noon Thursday Light in weight A feather light.
Avoid Overuse of Camouflaged Verbs Avoid camouflaged verbs. We camouflaged a verb by changing it to a noun form and then adding action words. Avoid camouflaged verbs by (1) writing concretely (2) Preferring active voice (3) make subject persons or things (4) Write sentences in normal order.
Camouflaged verb An arrangement was made to meet for break fast . Amortization of the account was effected by the staff. Application of the mixture was accomplished. We must bring about a reconciliation of our differences. Clear verb form We arranged to meet for breakfast. The staff amortized the account. They applied the mixture. We must reconcile our differences.
Select Word for Precise Meanings Writing requires a knowledge of language . We study language and learn the shades of difference in the meanings of similar words. Example : Weary, tired ,pooped, fagged out , exhausted All refer same things. Yet in most minds there are differences in the meaning of these words. For formal message – weary would be more acceptable than pooped, fagged out.
Money, funds, cash, dough, bread, finance. Boy , youth, young man, lad, shaver, stripling We should learn the specific meaning of other words. Knowledge of language also enable us to use words that carry the meaning we want to communicate. Example: “Fewer” – smaller number of items “less” - reduce value
Use correct idiom. Idiom is the way ideas are expressed in a language. Example : Faulty IdiomCorrect Idiom Careful about Careful with Comply to Comply with Different than Different from Equally as bad Equally bad In search for In search of Listen at Listen to
SUGGESTION FOR NONDISCRIMINATORY WRITING • Use gender-Neutral Word • Avoid Using Masculine Pronouns for Both Sexes • We can avoid the use of masculine pronouns in such • cases in three ways: • First: We can reword the sentence to eliminate the offended word. • Second : By making the reference plural. • Third: Use he or she, he/she, s/he, you, one and person ( we should use such expression caution.)
Example : Avoid: If a customer pays promptly, he is placed on our preferred list. First : A customer who pays promptly is placed on our preferred list. Second: If customers pay promptly, they are placed on our preferred list. Third: If customer pays promptly, he or she are placed on our preferred list.
Avoid Words Derived from Masculine Words • Our culture was male dominated when our language developed. Because of this, many of our words are masculine even though they do not refer exclusively to men. • Example: Gender-Neutral Chairperson, chair, presiding officer, moderator Sales person, salesclerk, sales representative Personnel, workers Business executive, businessperson Fire fighter Camera operator Avoid Chairman Salesman Manpower Businessman [ Fireman Cameraman
Avoid Word That Lower Status By Gender • Example Gender-neutral Lawyer Author Sculptress Poet Avoid Lady lawyer Authoress Sculptress Poetess
Avoid Words That Stereotype by Race, Nationality, etc Word that stereotype all members of a group by race, nationality or sexual orientation are especially unfair and frequently they reinforce stereotypical beliefs about this group. It is unfair : “Jews are miserly” “Italians are Mafia members” “ Hispanic are lazy” “African Americans can do only menial job.” “Gays are perfectionist.”
Avoid Word That Stereotype by Age Be sensitive with term:- Senior citizens, mature, elderly, golden ager, etc. Avoid :- Teenagers, adolescents Use :- young person, young man, young woman. Some slang term show lack of sensitivity: Brat, retard, dummy, juvenile delinquent, truant, runaway
Avoid Words That Typecast Those with Disabilities People with disability are likely to be discretionary words. Avoiduse Deaf and Dumb Deaf Fits Epilepsy
CONSTRUCTION OF CLEAR SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPH • Emphasis on Short Sentences • Short sentences communicate better because of mind limitation. • Short means about 16-18 words for middle level reader • The excessive use of short sentences is also bad. • Short sentence are achieved in two ways: • By limiting sentence content. • By using words economically.
Economizing on Word s: Economizing on words generally means seeking shorter way of saying things. Some suggestion: Avoid cluttering phrases. Substitute shorter expressions. Avoid : In the event that payment is not made by January, operation will cease. Short : If payment is not made by January, operation will cease.
Cluttering PhraseShorter Substitution Along the lines of like At the present time now For the purpose of for In accordance with. by
Eliminate Surplus Word Contain surplus word There are four rules that should be observed. The machine that are damaged by the fire were repaired. I am prepared to report to the effect that sales increased. Eliminate surplus word Four rules should be observed. The machine damaged by the fire were repaired. I am prepared to report that sales increased.
Roundabout Constructions Roundabout The president is of the opinion that the tax was paid. It is essential that the income be used to retire the debt. He criticized everyone he come to contract with. Direct The president believes the tax was paid The income must be used to retire the debt. He criticized everyone he met.
Unnecessary Repetition of Words or Ideas: Needless Repetition Please endorse your name on the back of this check. We must assemble together at 10:30 am in the morning Our new model is longer in length than old one Repetition Eliminated Please endorse this check. We assemble at 10:30 am Our new model is longer than the old one.
Determining Emphasis in Sentences Design • We should give every items its due emphasis. • Short sentence emphasize contents. • Determining emphasize is a matter of good judgment. • Giving the Sentence Unity • All parts of a sentence should concern one thought.
There are the three cause of unity error: 1) Placing unrelated ideas in a sentence violates unity We can avoid this error by: i) putting unrelated ideas in separate sentences, ii) subordinating an idea, iii) adding words that show relationship Excessive detail is another cause of lack of unity, put it in a separate sentence. This means using short sentences.
3) Illogical Constructions can rob a sentence of unity. Illogical Construction Job rotation is when you train people by moving them from job to job. My education was completed in 2004, and then I began work as a manager for Home Deport. Improved Job rotation is a training method in which people are moved from job to job. I completed my education in 2004 and then began work as a manager for Home Deport.
Arranging Sentences for Clarity • Clear writing requires that we follow the establish rules of grammar • This rules are based on custom and logical relationships.
Care in Paragraph Design Giving the Paragraph Unity The content of a paragraph should concern one topic or idea(unity). But unity can vary in breadth. Paragraph unity concerns a narrow topic.
Keeping Paragraph Short Generally, paragraph should be short. Short paragraph show organization better than long ones. People simple prefer to read writing with frequent paragraph breaks. It is more inviting, and it appears less difficult. Readability research has suggested an average length of eight lines for longer papers such as reports. But length can, and should vary with need.
Making Good Use of Topic Sentences The topic sentence express the main idea of a paragraph, and the remaining sentences build around and support it. In a sense, topic sentence serves as a headline for the paragraph, and all the other sentence supply the story. But not every paragraph must have a topic sentence.