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The Ocean Depths! (1). Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!. Areas of the Deep Sea. How Surface Water Masses Reach The Bottom. near Greenland. “Thermohaline Circulation”. Near the Antarctic. The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt. The Mesopelagic. The Twilight Zone.

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The ocean depths 1

The Ocean Depths! (1)

Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!



The ocean depths 1

How Surface Water Masses Reach The Bottom

near Greenland

“Thermohaline Circulation”

Near the Antarctic



The ocean depths 1

The Mesopelagic

The Twilight Zone


The ocean depths 1

Deep Sea Life Is Closely Correlated With Plankton Abundance And Light Intensity

Thermocline

Bottom of Mesopelagic Zone – No Light exists here



The ocean depths 1

Food Sources in the Deep Sea And Light Intensity


A few mesopelagic critters
A Few Mesopelagic Critters … And Light Intensity


The ocean depths 1

Mesopelagic Crustaceans And Light Intensity

Opossum shrimp

krill

true (decapod) shrimp



The ocean depths 1

Mesopelagic Squid Showing Photophores Length

Photophores, or light organs, are characteristic of many animals in the mesopelagic – they are active in bioluminescence



The ocean depths 1

Typical Mesopelagic Fishes Length

hatchetfish

pacific viperfish

lanternfish

dragonfish

barracudina

longnose

lancetfish


Adaptations of mesopelagic fishes
Adaptations of Mesopelagic Fishes Length

  • Small body size – limited food supply

  • Large mouths hinged to disarticulate

  • Generalized omnivores with abundant, long, sharp teeth

  • Feeding habits – migrators and non-migrators

  • Sense organs – tubular eyes with 2 retinas; well-developed lateral lines


Adaptations con t coloration and body shape
Adaptations Con’t.: Coloration and Body Shape Length

  • Countershading

  • Transparency – especially in upper areas of mesopelagic

  • Lateral compression of the body

  • Photophores and Bioluminescence




The ocean depths 1

An Adaptation for Large Prey – Hinged Jaws! Length

Viper fish

Rattrap fish

Opportunists of the Deep


The ocean depths 1

Convergent Evolution of Tubular Eyes in Mesopelagic Organisms

Krill – bilobed eye

Midwater fish - Scopelarchus

Deep-Sea Octopus



The ocean depths 1

Having Photophores Is Adaptive ! Organisms

Squid Without Photophores

Squid With Photophores



The ocean depths 2

The Ocean Depths! (2) Organisms

Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!


Below the mesopelagic the world of perpetual darkness
Below the Mesopelagic – OrganismsThe World of Perpetual Darkness

  • Below this zone which stops at about 1,000 meters is the:

  • Bathypelagic - 1,000 to 4,000 meters

  • Abyssopelagic - 4,000 to 6,000 meters

  • Hadopelagic – below 6,000 meters and into the trenches


The ocean depths 1

The Bathypelagic – Home Of Perpetual Darkness Organisms

Mesopelagic

Bathypelagic

(upper reaches)




The ocean depths 1

Some Deep-Sea Fishes Organisms

Anglerfish

Note very small, parasitic male

Swallower

Gulper


The problem of finding a mate
The Problem Of Finding A Mate … Organisms

  • Produce light ! (bioluminescence)

  • Produce an odor ! (pheromones)

  • Be a parasite and attach to the other sex !

  • Be a hermaphrodite and say “to heck with it” !






Sampling methods for the mesopelagic and beyond
Sampling Methods for the Mesopelagic and Beyond … Organisms

A Remote-Controlled Midwater Trawl