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Skeletal System. Pps: 116-150, 155-157, Review starts on pg 157 S/A: #3, 4, 19, 20, 24, 27 At the Clinic: #1, 3, 4, 5. Intro to the skeletal System. School House Rock Video. 137.222.110.150 . www.becomehealthynow.com . www.genomenewsnetwork.org . www.orthop.washington.edu.

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skeletal system

Skeletal System

Pps: 116-150, 155-157, Review starts on pg 157

S/A: #3, 4, 19, 20, 24, 27At the Clinic: #1, 3, 4, 5

intro to the skeletal system

Intro to the skeletal System

School House Rock Video

components of skeletal system

137.222.110.150

www.becomehealthynow.com

www.genomenewsnetwork.org

www.orthop.washington.edu

Components of Skeletal System
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Cartilages
  • Ligaments
functions of skeletal system
Functions of Skeletal System
  • Support
  • Protection
  • Movement
  • Storage
  • Hemopoiesis
basic bone types

www.gla.ac.uk

Basic Bone Types
  • Compact—dense, looks smooth
  • Spongy—composed of small, needle like pieces & lots of open space
four categories of bones

adam.about.com

137.222.110.150

Four Categories of Bones
  • Long

longer than wide

mostly compact bone

four categories of bones7

library.thinkquest.org

Four Categories of Bones

Short

cube shaped, contain mostly spongy bone

four categories of bones8

avalon.ira.uka.de

Four Categories of Bones
  • Flat
  • thin, flat, usually curved.
bone markings
Bone Markings
  • Projections (Processes)—grow out from bone surface; used to form joints or sites for muscle/ligament attachment.
  • Depressions—indentations in bone; allow for blood vessels and nerves to pass.
long bone structure
Long Bone Structure
  • Diaphysis (shaft)—makes up most of bone’s length—compact
  • Yellow bone marrow—storage of fat (cavity of shaft) in adults
  • Periosteum—protective covering of diaphysis
  • Epiphysis—end of long bone
long bone structure con t
Long Bone Structurecon’t:
  • Red bone marrow—within long bone shafts in infants, forms RBCs, limited to few locations in adults
  • Articular Cartilage—covers epiphyses of long bone
  • Epiphyseal plate—flat plate of hyaline cartilage found in young bone; causes lengthwise growth of bone.
  • Epiphyseal line—remnant of the epiphyseal plate
bone formation and growth
Bone Formation and Growth

Most bones (except flat bones) undergo ossification—

http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/notes/images/skmus/endochondralbone600.jpg

ossification process
Ossification Process
  • Hyaline cartilage model of bone is completely covered with bony matrix (laid down by osteoblasts…bone builders)
slide17
Next, the enclosed hyaline cartilage will be digested away, opening up the medullary cavity within the newly formed bone.

http://www.cdb.ucl.ac.uk/research/arnett/arnett_lab/images/osteoclast_bfast_lunch_dinner.jpg

(Done by osteoclasts—bone destroyers)

longitudinal growth
New cartilage is formed on external face of the epiphyseal plate farthest away from the medullary cavity

At the same time, the old cartilage next to the medullary cavity is broken down and replaced by bone—effectively lengthening the bone

Longitudinal Growth
longitudinal growth con t
Longitudinal Growth con’t:
  • Ossification completed between 18-25 years old.
how do bones widen
How do bones widen?
  • Osteoblasts in periosteum add bone tissue to outer surface at the same rate that osteoclasts break down bone from inner diaphysis wall.
slide23

http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine/Physiology/Skeletal/bone_growth.jpghttp://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine/Physiology/Skeletal/bone_growth.jpg

broken bones and how they mend
Broken bones and how they mend…
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U1qLUNXAhAY
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUK6EghcUdc
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_fjGpMmmycw
remodeling of bone
Remodeling of bone
  • Response to two factors:
    • Ca levels in blood
    • Stress on bones (gravity and muscle action)
ca levels
Ca levels
  • When Ca levels in your blood drop below homeostatic levels, the parathyroid glands release PTH (parathyroid hormone) into blood

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/thyroid/pth_targets.gif

ca levels27
Ca levels
  • PTH activates the osteoclasts to break down bone to release Ca into blood
  • If Ca levels in blood are high, your thyroid gland releases calcitonin which causes the extra Ca to be deposited into the bone
slide28

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_TGR8TxUfiIw/RpbJZDWC7rI/AAAAAAAAAiY/oJdpoxfrlV4/s400/14.jpghttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/_TGR8TxUfiIw/RpbJZDWC7rI/AAAAAAAAAiY/oJdpoxfrlV4/s400/14.jpg

stress on bones
Stress on bones
  • Gravity/Muscles pulling on bones indicates where the bones must strengthen. This explains why bones grow large projections in areas that are heavily muscled…
ca and stress on bones work together
Ca and Stress on bones work together…
  • PTH determines IF Ca is needed and the effects of gravity/stress on bones determines WHERE the Ca is deposited in bone.
minerals
Minerals

Mg deficiency slows osteoclasts and slows bone formation

Insufficient Ca and P are causes of weak bone

Insufficient B—boron aids in Ca absorption in digestive tract…

minerals33
Minerals
  • Vit C deficiency results in decreased production of collagen = slower bone growth and slower fracture healing
  • Vit B12 may play a role in osteoblast activity
hormones other than pth and calcitonin
Hormones—(other than PTH and Calcitonin)
  • Human Growth Hormone (hGH) produced by pituitary gland promotes general bone growth
  • Estrogen and Testosterone—promote osteoblast activity
exercise
Exercise
  • Exercise creates electrical currents that stimulate formation of osteoblasts—especially exercise that puts stress on bones
  • Stimulates production of Calcitonin (inhibiting osteoclasts)
  • Lack of exercise induces removal of mineral salts and collagen
smoking
Smoking
  • Smoking reduces estrogen levels thus lowering osteoblasts = greater risk of osteoporosis
  • Smoking diminishes circulation which increases the risk of poor bone density
  • Smokers tend to not exercise…see previous slide
aging
Aging
  • Loss of Ca is correlated with aging
  • Premature abandonment of exercise results in decreased ability to make bone matrix—older people who maintain exercise have stronger bones than same age peers who are sedentary…
axial skeleton

Axial Skeleton

www.besthealth.com

definition

www.besthealth.com

Definition
  • longitudinal axis of body.
  • Skull, vertebral column, & bony thorax
bones of the skull
Bones of the skull

2 parts: the cranium and the facial bones

  • Cranium—encloses & protects fragile brain tissue
    • Frontal --Occipital
    • Parietal --Sphenoid
    • Temporal --Ethmoid
slide41

Cranium

www.mc.maricopa.edu

facial bones
Facial bones
  • Holds eyes in the anterior portion of head and allows for muscle attachment/expressions
    • Mandible --Lacrimal
    • Maxilla --Nasal
    • Palatine --Vomer
    • Zygomatic
facial bones43
Facial Bones

training.seer.cancer.gov

facial bones con t
Facial Bones con’t:

www.bartelby.net

hyoid
Hyoid

courses.washington.edu

bioweb.uwlax.edu

  • only bone in human body that doesn’t articulate with another bone.
fetal skull
Fetal Skull

Large compared to body size (about ¼ of body, in adults 1/8)

fontenels—soft spots, allow for depression during birth and brain growth.

ossification between 22 – 24 months

vertebral column
Vertebral Column

Supports skull and extends to pelvis

  • flexible, curved structure of 26 irregular bones (33 at infancy)
  • spinal cord runs through the center
  • Intervertebral discs—flexible fibrocartilage to cushion and protect.
vertebral column48
Vertebral Column

bibleocean.com

five types of vertebrae

biology.kenyon.edu

www.biologydaily.com

Five types of vertebrae

Cervical (7)

Thoracic (12)

five types of vertebrae50
Five types of vertebrae

Lumbar (5)

www.sandiego-spine.com

five types of vertebrae51
Five types of vertebrae

Sacrum

(5 fused)

Coccyx

(3 – 5 fused)

www.gla.ac.uk

v e t e b r a e a n a t o m y
VetebraeAnatomy
  • Body—weight bearing part facing anteriorly
  • vertebral foramen—canal for spinal cord
  • transverse process—2 lateral projections
  • spinous process—single projection from posterior aspects of vertebral arch
  • superior/inferior articular processes—form joints with adjacent vertebrae
bony thorax
Bony Thorax
  • Made up of the sternum and the ribs

academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us

sternum
Sternum
  • Manubrium
  • Body
  • xiphoid process

www.yorku.ca

slide56
Ribs
  • 12 pairs, male and female
  • true ribs (7) attach directly to sternum
  • false ribs (5) attach indirectly to sternum (or not at all)
  • floating ribs (last 2)—lack sternal attachments
  • intercostal spaces—spaces between ribs, aid in breathing

www.mnsu.edu

appendicular skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

www.besthealth.com

definition function
Definition/Function
  • Attach limbs to the axial skeleton

www.besthealth.com

pectoral girdle
Pectoral Girdle

Clavicle

  • slender, doubly

curved bone

  • attaches to manubrium medially and to the scapula laterally.

www.dccc.edu

pectoral girdle60
Pectoral Girdle

Scapula

  • Spine
  • Acromion process

enlarged end of the spine

  • Coracoid process

points over the top of shoulder

anchors some arm muscles

  • Glenoid cavity—shallow socket that receives head of humerus.

www.artem-medicalis.com

bones of upper appendage
Bones of Upper Appendage

mywebpages.comcast.net

biology.kenyon.edu

bones of upper appendage62
Bones of Upper Appendage
  • Humerus
  • greater and lesser tubercles—muscle attachment, found opposite the head.
  • deltoid tuberosity—midpoint of shaft, attachment point of deltoid muscle.
  • trochlea—articulates with bones of forearm, “spool”.
  • capitulum—“ball like”, articulates with bones of forearm.
bones of upper appendage64
Bones of Upper Appendage
  • Radius

lateral bone in anatomical position

radial tuberosity—just below the head of radius, attachment point of biceps.

head

neck

styloid process

radius
Radius

http://king.victoriacollege.edu/dept/bio/Pig/HumanSkeleton/webpages/radius.html

bones of upper appendage66
Bones of Upper Appendage

Ulna

  • medial bone in anatomical position
  • coronoid process
  • olecranon process—forms elbow
  • Trochlear notch—articulates with humerus
slide67
Ulna

http://a-s.clayton.edu/biology/biol3650l/skeletal/human_skeleton.htm

bones of upper appendage68

www.vampirewear.com

Bones of Upper Appendage

Carpals

  • wrist bones
  • 2 rows of 4 bones

each

Hand bones

phalanges—14 in each hand, 3 in each finger (except thumb)

metacarpals

numbered 1 – 5 starting with thumb, form palm

pelvic girdle
Pelvic Girdle

Coxal—hip bones

  • bearing weight is most important function
  • protection of repro. organs, bladder and part of large intestine.
  • ilium—forms large part of hip bones
  • ischium—forms most inferior part of coxal bone
  • pubis—most anterior part of coxal bone
  • acetabulum—receives head of femur

Sacroiliac Joint—connects ilium to sacrum

pelvic girdle70
Pelvic Girdle

en.wikipedia.org

bones of lower appendages
Bones of Lower Appendages

academic.wsc.edu

biology.kenyon.edu

bones of lower appendages72
Bones of Lower Appendages
  • Femur—heaviest and strongest bone in body.

biology.kenyon.edu

femur parts to know
Femur—parts to know
  • Greater trochanter
  • Head
  • Neck
femur parts to know74
Femur—parts to know
  • Intertrochantic crest
  • Lateral condyle
  • Medial condyle
bones of lower appendages75
Bones of Lower Appendages

Tibia—shinbone

  • larger of 2 leg bones—medial side of leg
  • articulates with distal end of femur to form knee joint.

http://biology.kenyon.edu/heithausp/cat-tutorial/hindlimb/tibia.htm

bones of lower appendages76
Bones of Lower Appendages

Fibula

  • thin, sticklike
  • lateral malleolus forms the outer part of ankle.

http://homepage.smc.edu/wissmann_paul/bones/2tibiaandFibula.html

bones of lower appendages77
Bones of Lower Appendages

Foot bones

Tarsals (7)

Metatarsals (5)

phalanges (14)

www.octc.kctcs.edu

joint types

swc2.hccs.edu

Joint Types

Synarthroses:

  • immovable, fibrous joints
  • bones united by fibrous tissue
  • e.g., sutures—found in skull
joint types81

commons.bcit.ca

Joint Types

Amphiarthroses:

  • slightly movable
  • bone ends connected by cartilage
2 main types of amphiarthroses

commons.bcit.ca

2 main types of amphiarthroses
  • syndesmosis—bones connected by a ligament (tibia connected to fibula)
  • symphysis—bones separated by wedge of cartilage (interverterbral joints and pubic symphysis
joint types83
Joint Types

Diarthroses:

  • freely movable, synovial joints

Characteristics

  • articular cartilage covering ends of bones
characteristics of diarthoses con t
Characteristics of diarthoses con’t:
  • joint cavity filled with synovial fluid (thick solution, consistency of molasses) whose functions include lubrication, nutrient distribution and shock absorption
  • ligaments for reinforcement.
  • meniscus—pad of fibrocartilage between opposing bones within a synovial joint.
articulation disorder
Articulation disorder

Arthritis—joint inflammation

Osteoarthritis

  • most common—usually affects elderly
  • affects articular cartilage
  • usually slow and irreversible.

orthopedics.about.com

joint diseases
Joint Diseases

Rheumatoid arthritis

  • autoimmune disease
  • chronic inflammatory disorder
  • course varies and is marked by remissions and flare ups
  • drug therapy

podiatry.curtin.edu.au

most common bone fractures

www.azaleaortho.com

Most common bone fractures
  • Simple (closed)

bone breaks but doesn’t penetrate skin layer

most common bone fractures91
Most common bone fractures
  • Compound (open)

bone breaks through skin

http://www.itim.nsw.gov.au/images/Compound_fracture_dislocation_left_ankle.jpg

most common bone fractures92
Most common bone fractures
  • Impacted

broken bone ends are forced into each other

http://www.radiology.us/images/200/wristcollesapx3600.jpg

most common bone fractures93
Most common bone fractures
  • Greenstick—incomplete break
disorders of the skeletal system
Disorders of the Skeletal System

Osteoporosis

  • bone thinning disease
  • related to loss of estrogen in body
  • vertebral collapse causes hunched posture
  • hugs and sneezes can cause fractures

www.nih.gov

disorders of the skeletal system95
Disorders of the Skeletal System

Osteomyelitis

bacterial infection of a bone.

http://www.londonhyperbaric.com/images/Osteomyelitis_sm.jpg

disorders of the skeletal system96
Disorders of the Skeletal System
  • Tumors of bone--Osteosarcomas

http://courses.rad.washington.edu/file.php/48/fem_osx.jpg

http://fotos.fotoflexer.com/2008/03/29/2ff03840.jpg

disorders of the skeletal system97
Disorders of the Skeletal System

hipusa.com

  • Dislocation
disorders of the skeletal system98
Disorders of the Skeletal System
  • Sprain—ligament is stretched/torn

www.nismat.org

disorders of the vertebrae
Disorders of the Vertebrae
  • Scoliosis

spine curves left or right

www.rad.washington.edu

disorders of the vertebrae100
Disorders of the Vertebrae
  • Kyphosis
  • Abnormal “hump” formed by thoracic vertebrae

www.spinecolorado.com

disorders of the vertebrae101

www.nlm.nih.gov

Disorders of the Vertebrae
  • Lordosis
  • extreme curving at lumbar vertebrae
disorders of the vertebrae102

www.chiro.org

Disorders of the Vertebrae
  • Herniated “slipped” disc
  • drying discs which press on spinal nerves or spinal cord