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Integrated Control Plane Developments: CHEETAH, HOPI, OSCARS, USN. Nagi Rao Oak Ridge National Laboratory, raons@ornl.gov Malathi Veeraraghavan University of Virginia, mv@ece.virgina.edu Tom Lehman Information Sciences Institute East, tlehman@isi.edu Nasir Ghani

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integrated control plane developments cheetah hopi oscars usn
Integrated Control Plane Developments: CHEETAH, HOPI, OSCARS, USN

Nagi Rao

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, raons@ornl.gov

Malathi Veeraraghavan

University of Virginia, mv@ece.virgina.edu

Tom Lehman

Information Sciences Institute East, tlehman@isi.edu

Nasir Ghani

Tennessee Technological University, nghani@tntech.edu

Chin Guok

ESnet, chin@es.net

ESCC/Internet2 Joint Techs WorkshopJul 16-19, 2006

Madison, Wisconsin

outline
Outline
  • Introduction to Control Planes
    • USN Update
    • CHEETAH, HOPI-DRAGON, OSCARS
  • Multi Domain Resource Provisioning
    • A Framework
    • Integrated Path Computation
    • VLAN-Based Channel Alignment
disparate control plane technologies
Disparate Control Plane Technologies

We area at a critical point in control-plane technologies for advanced networks:

    • MPLS/GMPLS being enabled and/or deployed by vendors
    • Several control planes are being developed under different paradigms:
      • ESnet-OSCARS, CHEETAH, HOPI-DRAGON, UCLP, USN, GEANT, DANTE, and others
    • Underlying challenges and solutions are slowly being understood: Standards are being discussed
      • security of control plane access
      • bandwidth optimization
      • data and control plane alignment
      • synchronization of schedulers and signaling
      • multi-domain authorization
      • others
  • Solutions appear to be diverging, at least on the surface but they address different application domains
control plane paradigms
Control Plane Paradigms

Two main paradigms

  • On-Demand Provisioning:
    • TL1,CLI: earlier host-level mechanisms primarily for manual configuration
    • MPLS for layer 3, GMPLS for lower layers meant for automated configuration at network-level
  • In-Advance Provisioning: Using a front-end for
    • Path computation and/or
    • Bandwidth optimization

followed by mostly in-time signaling

These paradigms address different application needs:

    • in-advance provisioned bandwidth to coordinate with reservations on other facilities such as supercomputers and experimental facilities.
    • on-demand provisioning to provide dedicated bandwidth
some control plane technologies
Some Control Plane Technologies
  • HOPI-DRAGON – on-demand
    • GMPLS front end with CLI/TL1 for lower layers
    • Ethernet switches and routers
  • OSCARS-ESnet – in-advance
    • Path computation + MPLS at layer 3
    • Juniper and Cisco routers
  • USN – in-advance
    • Bandwidth optimization + CLI/TL1
    • Ciena CDCI + Force10 E300
  • CHEETAH – on-demand
    • On-demand provisioning using GMPLS
    • Sycamore SN16000 switches
usn data plane node configuration
USN Data-Plane: Node Configuration

In the Core:

  • Two OC192 switched by Ciena CDCIs

At the Edge

  • 10/1 GigE provisioning using Force10 E300s

Node Configuration

Linux host

OC192

to Seattle

10GigE

WAN PHY

e300

CDCI

Data Plane User Connections:

Direct connections to:

core switches –SONET &1GigE

MSPP – Ethernet channels

Utilize UltraScience Net hosts

GigE

10GigE

Connections to

CalTech and ESnet

usn secure control plane
USN Secure Control-Plane

VPN-based authentication, encryption and firewall

  • NetScreen ns-50 at ORNL

NetScreen ns-5 at each node

  • Centralized server at ORNL
    • Bandwidth scheduling
    • Signaling

ns-5

VPN tunnel

linuxhost

ns-50

linuxhost

e300

CDCI

e300

CDCI

Control

server

usn control plane
USN Control Plane
  • Phase I
    • Centralized path computation for bandwidth optimization
    • TL1/CLI-based communication with CoreDirectors and E300s
    • User access via centralized web-based scheduler
  • Phase II (currently being tested)
    • GMPLS wrappers for TL1/CLI
    • Inter-domain “secured” GMPLS-based interface
    • Webservices interface
    • X509 authentication for web server and service
slide9

CHEETAH Data and Control Planes

CHEETAH: Sycamore SN16000 data plane – OC192

GMPLS control-plane over IP tunnels

Additional 1GigE L2VLANS between ORNL and Atlanta

SN16K

SN16K

CHEETAH

GMPLS supported on

Secure control plane

Ns-5 terminated IP tunnels

Data Plane OC192

SN16K

oscars guaranteed bandwidth vc service for sc science
OSCARS: Guaranteed Bandwidth VC Service For SC Science
  • ESnet On-demand Secured Circuits and Advanced Reservation System (OSCARS)
  • In its current phase this effort is being funded as a research project by the Office of Science, Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Network R&D Program
  • A prototype service has been deployed as a proof of concept
    • To date more then 20 accounts have been created for beta users, collaborators, and developers
    • More then 100 reservation requests have been processed
functional view of oscars
Functional View of OSCARS
  • Support user/application VC reservation requests
    • Users enter reservations via a web-page
    • Applications uses API to send signed SOAP messages
  • Manage allocations of scarce, shared resources
    • Centralized resource management
    • Authentication is done using X509 certificates
    • Authorization TBD
  • Provide circuit setup and teardown mechanisms
    • OSPE-TE for routing
    • BGP for reachability
    • RSVP-TE for signaling
    • MPLS for switching
  • Enable the claiming of reservations
    • Policy based filtering for traffic destined for VC
  • Enforce usage limits
    • Per VC admission control
    • Separate router queue for VCs
esnet virtual circuit service roadmap
ESnet Virtual Circuit Service Roadmap
  • Dedicated virtual circuits
  • Dynamic virtual circuit allocation
  • Generalized MPLS (GMPLS)

Initial production service

Full production service

2005 2006 2007 2008

  • Interoperability between GMPLS circuits, VLANs, and MPLS circuits (Layer 1-3)
  • Interoperability between VLANs and MPLS circuits(Layer 2 & 3)
  • Dynamic provisioning of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) circuits (Layer 3)
dragon project features and objectives
DRAGON: Project Features and Objectives
  • Utilize GMPLS protocols for dynamic provisioning of Light Paths
    • Addition of CSPF Path Computation algorithms for wavelength routing
  • Inter-domain service routing techniques
    • Network Aware Resource Broker (NARB) for service advertising, inter-domain ERO generation, AAA
  • Application Specific Topology Description Language
    • Formalized means to describe the application topology and network service requirements
  • Integration with real applications:
    • E-VLBI
    • HD-CVAN
dragon technologies
DRAGON Technologies
  • Open Source GMPLS Control Plane
    • Virtual Label Swapping Router – VLSR
      • Open source OSPF-TE & RSVP-TE to control Ethernet switches and fiber switches
    • Network Aware Resource Broker – NARB
      • GMPLS-OSPF-TE listener
      • Performs the inter-domain routing, AAA, scheduling, PC
    • Advanced Constrained Shortest Path First Path Computation Element – CSPF PCE
      • Domain selectable abstraction levels and end-to-end LSP
  • Application Specific Topologies - ASTB
    • Formalization of application’s resource requirements – particularly the network resources.
  • Photonic metro-scale wavelength services
    • Reduce/eliminate unnecessary OEO,
    • allow user generated ITU waves to transit the metro network (alien waves)
    • Framing and encoding agnostic
dragon control plane
DRAGON Control Plane
  • Virtual Label Switching Router (VLSR)
  • Open source protocols running on PC act as GMPLS signaling entity
  • Control PCs participate in protocol exchanges and reprovision covered switch according to protocol events (PATH setup, PATH tear down, state query, etc)

Control Plane

NARB

Control PC

VLSR

OSPF & RSVP

RSVP

SNMP / TL1 / CLI

Ethernet Switch

Data Plane

Data Plane

CHEETAH control-plane is quite similar – uses Sycamore SN16000

a general control plane architecture single domain
A General Control-Plane Architecture:Single Domain

Resource

database

Network Device Node #1

Centralized

or

Distributed

AAA

User

Interface

state and

scheduling

signaling

Secure

channels

state

signal

state

signal

Network Device Node #N

Some modules might be trivial in some control planes

integrated multi domain resource provisioning a perspective
Integrated Multi-Domain Resource Provisioning – A Perspective
  • Front-End website/webservice
    • Integrates all data bases; SOAP interface
  • Meta-Scheduler
    • Path Composition and Alignment
      • Computes multi-domain path; Queries domain schedulers
    • May include host scheduling
  • Coordinated Signaling
    • Sends path requests to domain signaling modules
  • Multi-Domain Authentication, Authorization and Accounting

A proposal is under consideration with DOE High-Performance Networking program on this topic

multi domain resource provisioning architecture
Multi-Domain Resource Provisioning Architecture

Resource

database

Reserve

database

Network Domain #1

Centralized

Or Distributed

Federated

state

meta

scheduler

signaling

state

schedule

signal

state

schedule

signal

Network Domain #M

AAA and secure channels are domain-specific

User authorization and credentials are domain-specific

slide19

USN Path Computation – Bandwidth Optimization

  • Different paths may be computed:
    • A specified bandwidth in a specified time slot,
    • Earliest available time with a specified bandwidth and duration,
    • Highest available bandwidth in a specified time slot,
    • All available time slots with a specified bandwidth and duration.
  • All are computed by extending the shortest path algorithms using a closed semi-ring structure defined on sequences of real intervals
    • (i)-(iii): Variation of Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm
    • (iv): Variation of Bellman-Ford algorithm;
    • - previously solved using transitive-closure algorithm

Sequence of disjoint real intervals

Point-wise intersection

Point-wise union

slide20

All-Slots Algorithm

Given network with band width allocations on all links

ALL-SLOTS returns all possible starting times for a connection with bandwidth b duration t between source node s and destination node d

Modified Bell-Ford algorithm: Time-complexity:

More efficient than transitive-closure algorithm:

vlan unifying data plane technology
VLAN – Unifying Data-Plane Technology
  • IP networks
    • VLANs Implemented in MPLS tunnels (L2VPN)
  • Circuit switched networks
    • VLANs Implemented on top of Ethernet channels
  • Align IP and circuit connections at VLAN level

Alignment

of VLANs

IP network

Circuit Switched

VLAN over

MPLS

VLAN

Over Ehthernet

MPLS tunnel

Layer-2 connection

slide22

USN–CHEETAH VLAN Alignment

UltraScience Net: Layer-2

VLAN: E300 – CDCI - … - CDCI – E300

CHEETAH: layer-3 + layer 2

VLAN: T640-T640 – SN1600– Cisco 3750

UltraScienceNet

CHEETAH L2MPLS+L2 VLAN

USN L2 VLAN

CHEETAH

slide23

Measurements: VLANs over L1-L3 connections

  • Two types of measurements:
    • Ping (standard version), and TCP roundtrip time of 1K packets
  • Three channels:
  • 1. USN: host-SONET-host – 1000 miles; OC-21
  • 2. CHEETAH/ORNL: host-MPLS-host – 300 miles; 1Gig VLAN
  • 3. USN-CHEETAH: host-SONET-MPLS-host; 1300 miles 1Gig VLAN
  • Comparison Method for jitter and delay dynamics:
  • normalization of wide-area measurements based on mean delay

1000 miles

E300

switch

CDCI

switch

CDCI

switch

E300

switch

host

host

ORNL

Atlanta-SOX

1Gig MPLS

tunnel

host

T640

router

T640

router

host

300 miles

normalized comparison of vlans sonet sonet mpls composed l2mpls

Ping measurements normalized for comparison:

Normalized Comparison of VLANs:SONET - SONET-MPLS composed – L2MPLS

SONET

SONET-MPLS

composite

L2MPLS

mean time=9.384557msstd_dev (%)= 3.281692

mean time=26.845877ms

std_dev (%)= 0.187035

mean time=35.981812ms std_dev (%)= 0.151493

SONET channels

have smaller jitter levels

components of multi domain control plane
Components of Multi-Domain Control-Plane
  • Security: AAA + Encryption System
    • User/Client authentication over multiple domains
  • Path Optimization: Meta-Scheduler
    • Composite graph
      • Nodes: peering points
      • Edge: in-domain connections or resources
    • Path computation and composition
      • Issue individual domain path requests
      • Agglomerate domain paths
  • Integrated Signaling System
    • Issue reservation commands
    • Exception handling
domain technical tasks
Domain Technical Tasks
  • USN-CHEETAH
    • Webservice interface
    • Integrated VLAN specification
  • OSCARS
    • VLANs over MPLS tunnels
    • Provisioning to Chicago and Sunnyvale routers
  • HOPI-DRAGON
    • Webservice interface
    • Advanced Scheduling
    • Peering in Chicago and Seattle
an integrated scheduler for hybrid networks
An Integrated Scheduler for Hybrid Networks
  • MPLS tunnel over IP network
  • Layers 1-2 over switched networks

Approach

    • Higher level scheduler composes end-to-end VLAN consisting of portions of MPLS tunnels and layer 1-2 channels
    • Extensions of Dijkstra and Bellman-Ford Algorithms
    • Coordinated daemons will be launched to setup the needed portions of path

Layer 3

connection

Layer 2/1

circuit

Layer 3

connection

On-demand

MPLS

GMPLS

MPLS

In-advance

USN+(TL1,CLI)

OSCARS

OSCARS

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Coming Together of Control-Plane Technologies
    • Different application domains are optimally supported by different control-planes
    • Multiple-domain paths are needed for several applications
    • Several new technologies exist but more are needed, and they all must be integrated
  • Hybrid Integrated Architecture
    • Networks that combine best of shared IP and dedicated channels are feasible but need further development
    • Data-planes must be aligned and peered in addition to control planes
  • Peering Multiple Control-Planes is Complex
    • Synchronization of schedulers
    • Multi-domain path composition
    • Coordinated signaling
    • Multi-Domain AAA