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Diversity of Life

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  1. Diversity of Life Part III: Vertebrates

  2. What is a vertebrate • Has a backbone that is part of an internal skeleton • Formed by bones called vertebrae • Joints between vertebrae give flexibility

  3. Fish • Vertebrate that lives in the water and uses fins to move • Ectothermic (body doesn’t produce internal heat, body temp. changes depending on temp of environment) • Obtain oxygen from water through gills (contain blood vessels to transport the oxygen) • Closed circulatory system (2 chambered heart) • Most have external fertilization

  4. Types of fish • Jawless (No jaws and no scales) • Skeletons made out of cartilage, a tissue that is more flexible than bone. • Examples: Hagfish and Lampreys (attach their mouths to healthy fish and suck the blood and tissues out!) • Cartilaginous (have jaws and scales) • Skeletons made out of cartilage • Examples: Sharks and sting rays • Bony fish (has jaws, scales, and skeleton made of hard bone) • Contains a swim bladder (gas-filled sac to help fish stay at different depths in the water) • 95% of all fish species

  5. Amphibians • Vertebrate • Ectothermic • 3 chambered heart • Spends early life in water and adult life on land going back to the water to reproduce. • Lose lungs during metamorphosis and use lungs when living on land (organ to exchange oxygen and CO2 between the air and the blood) • Examples: Salamanders, frogs • Most go through a metamorphosis early in their life changing from a larvae to an adult (tadpolesfrogs)

  6. Reptiles • Examples: Lizards, snakes, alligators, dinosaurs • Ectothermic vertebrate • Has lungs (first organisms to live entirely on land) • Scaly skin • Lays their eggs on land (not in water) • Live entire life on land (so they must conserve the water inside of them!) • Use skin, kidneys and eggs to conserve water

  7. Birds • Endothermic (body regulates its own temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces) • Vertebrate • Lays eggs • Has feathers • 4 chambered heart • Adaptations for flight (different types of feathers function for different purposes, hollow bones, large chest muscles) • Has crop (organ that stores food)and gizzard (grinds food) for eating. Don’t need teeth!

  8. Mammals • Endothermic • Vertebrates • 4 chambered heart • Skin covered with fur or hair • Most born alive • Every young mammal is fed with milk produced by organs in its mother’s body (mammary glands)

  9. Mammals cont… • Have a large muscle called the diaphragm that works with rib muscles to breathe in and out. • Many specialized adaptations for movement (swinging on trees, hopping, running) • Complex nervous system that coordinates movements. (highly developed senses)