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Musical Instruments 2 Музыкальные Инструменты Musical Instruments Му зы ка ль ны е ин с т ру мен ты Saxophone са к со фо н The saxophone is a member of the woodwind family . Saxophones are usually made of brass and are played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to the clarinet.

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musical instruments 2
Musical Instruments2

Музыкальные Инструменты

slide7

The saxophone is a member of the woodwind family.

  • Saxophones are usually made of brass and are played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to the clarinet.
  • The saxophone was invented by Adolphe Sax in 1841.
  • He wanted to create an instrument that would both be the loudest of the woodwinds and the most versatile of the brass, and would fill the then vacant middle ground between the two sections.
  • He patented the sax in 1846 in two groups of seven instruments each: various sizes in alternating transposition.
  • While proving very popular in its intended niche of military band music, the saxophone is most commonly associated with popular music, big band music, blues, early rockand roll, ska and particularly jazz.
  • There is also a substantial repertoire of concert music
  • Saxophone players are called saxophonists.
  • Ravel's scoring for the instrument in Bolero features famous Sax solo
  • .In the 1920s the bass saxophone was used often in classic jazz recordings, since at that time it was easier to record than a tuba or double bass.
  • It is also used in the original score (and movie) of Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story.
  • The saxophone has been more recently introduced into the symphony orchestra, where it has found increased popularity
slide11

Maracas is a native instrument of Puerto Rico.

  • Maracas They are simple percussion instruments (idiophones=produce sound by vibrating themselves)
  • Maracas are usually played in pairs
  • Maracas consist of a dried calabash or gourd shell or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. They may also be made of leather, wood, or plastic.
  • Often one maraca is pitched high and the other is pitched low.
  • There are in existence clay maracas used by the Indians of Colombia, 1500 years ago.
  • Maracas are also very popular with children
  • The word maraca is thought to have come from the Tupi language of Brazil, where it is pronounced 'ma-ra-KAH'. They are known in Trinidad as shac-shacs.
  • Although a simple instrument, the method of playing the maracas is not obvious. The seeds must travel some distance before they hit the leather, wood, or plastic, so the player must anticipate the rhythm. One can also strike the maraca against one's hand or leg to get a different sound.
  • Band leader Vincent Lopez hosted a radio program in the early 1950s called Shake the Maracas in which audience members competed for small prizes by playing the instrument with the orchestra.
  • Maracas are heard in many forms of Latin music and are also used in pop and classical music.
  • They are considered characteristic of the music of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela, Mexico, Jamaica and Brazil.
  • Maracas are often played at celebrations and special events. In rock and roll, they are probably most identified with Bo Diddley, who wrote the song "Bring it to Jerome" about his maraca player, Jerome Green.
slide15

The balalaika is a stringed instrument of Russian origin,

  • Blalaika has characteristic triangular body and 3 strings (or sometimes 6, in 3 courses).
  • The balalaika family of instruments includes: the prima, sekunda, alto, bass and contrabass balalaika.
  • All have three-sided bodies, spruce or fir tops and backs made of from 3-9 wooden sections, and all have 3 strings.
  • The prima balalaika is played with the fingers, the sekunda and alto either with the fingers or a pick depending on the music being played, and the basses and contrabasses
  • The most common solo instrument is the prima, tuned E-E-A
  • The term first appeared in the Ukrainian language in the 18th century in documents from 1717-1732. It is thought that the term was borrowed into Russian where it first appeared a poem by V. Maikov "Elysei" in 1771.
  • In the 1880s Vassily Vassilievich Andreyev developed a standardized balalaika made with the assistance of violin maker V. Ivanov. Since then it was widely used for Russian folk music.
slide19

The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον - xylon, "wood" + φωνή - phone, "voice", meaning "wooden sound") is a percussion familyinstrument

  • It consists of wooden bars of various lengths that are struck by plastic, wooden, or rubber mallets.
  • Each bar is tuned to a specific pitch
  • The xylophone originated independently in Asia and Africa.
  • An older theory states that the instrument was invented in Indonesia and spread subsequently to Africa
  • . Wooden bars were originally seated on a series of hollow gourds, and the gourds generated the resonating notes that are produced on modern instruments by metal tubes.
  • For centuries, xylophone makers struggled with methods of tuning the wooden bars. Old methods consisted of arranging the bars on tied bundles of straw, and, as still practiced today, placing the bars adjacent to each other in a ladder-like layout.
  • The earliest evidence of a xylophone is from the 9th Century in southeast Asia according to the Vienna Symphonic Library, and there is a model of a similar hanging wood instrument, dated to ca. 2000 BC in China.
  • It is likely that the xylophone reached Europe during the Crusades
  • By 1830, the xylophone had been popularized to some extent by a Russian virtuoso named Michael Josef Gusikov, who through extensive tours, made the instrument known.
  • Gusikov was praised by noted musicians, including Felix Mendelssohn, Frederic Chopin, and Franz Liszt.
slide23

A harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard.

  • Harp can also be used as percussion instrument
  • All harps have a neck, resonator and strings.
  • Some, known as frame harps, also have a forepillar; those lacking the forepillar are referred to as open harps.
  • Depending on its size (which varies considerably), a harp may be played while held in the lap or while stood on the floor.
  • A person who plays the harp is called a harpist or a harper.
  • Various types of harps are found in Africa, Europe, North, and South America, and a few parts of Asia.
  • Harp's origins may lie in the sound of a plucked hunter's bow string
  • Harps were most likely independently invented in many parts of the world in remote prehistory
  • The oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar are from 4000 BC in Egypt and 3000 BCE in Persia
  • In antiquity harps and lyres were very prominent in nearly all musical cultures, but they lost popularity in the early 19th century with Western music composers, being thought of primarily as a woman's instrument after Marie Antoinette popularised it as an activity for women.
  • The aeolian harp (wind harp), the autoharp, and all forms of the lyre and Kithara are not harps because their strings are not perpendicular to the soundboard; they are related to pianos and harpsichords.
  • Handel wrote a Harp Concerto in B flat and Mozart - Concerto for Flute and Harp
slide27

Guitar is a stringed instrument

  • Guitar’s strings are plucked or strummed with the right hand while the fingers on the left hand press down one or more strings.
  • Guitar typically has six strings (E, A, D, G, B, E), but four, seven, eight, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen and eighteen string guitars also exist.
  • Instruments similar to the guitar have been popular for at least 4,000 years.
  • The modern form of the guitar was developed in Spain in late 1800s
  • Until 20th c. it was mostly used in folk music
  • Andres Segovia helped to establish the guitar as instrument for classical music
  • Guitars are recognized as one of the primary instruments in flamenco, jazz, blues, country, mariachi, rock music, and many forms of pop.
  • In classical music guitars are used as solo
  • In classical music guitars usually have nylon strings; in pop music – steel strings.
  • Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers.
  • The guitar player (c. 1672), by Johannes Vermeer
  • Guitars may be played acoustically, where the tone is produced by vibration of the strings and modulated by the hollow body, or they may rely on an amplifier that can electronically manipulate tone.
  • Such electric guitars were introduced in the 1930s and continue to have a profound influence on popular culture.
slide31

The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family.

  • It is a bar of metal (usually steel), bent into a triangle shape with one of the angles is left open, with the ends of the bar not quite touching.
  • Open end causes the instrument to be of indeterminate or not settled or decided pitch.
  • Triangle is either suspended from one of the other corners by a piece of thin wire or gut, leaving it free to vibrate, or hooked over the hand.
  • Triangle is usually struck with a metal beater, giving a high-pitched, ringing tone.
  • Early instruments were often formed as isosceles triangles and had jingling rings
  • In folk music, samba and rock music a triangle is more often hooked over the hand so that one side can be damped by the fingers to vary the tone. The pitch can also be modulated slightly by varying the area struck and by more subtle damping.
  • In European classical music, the triangle has been used in the western classical orchestra since around the middle of the 18th century.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven all used it
  • Angelika Kauffmann: L'Allegra, 1779
  • The first piece to make the triangle really prominent was Franz Liszt's Piano Concerto No. 1, where it is used as a solo instrument
  • A notable player of the triangle in popular culture is John Deacon of the rock group Queen. He would play the triangle in live performances of Killer Queen, hanging it from his microphone.
slide35

The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family.

  • Oboe was developed in France in 17th century
  • In English prior to 1770, the instrument was called "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy".
  • The spelling "oboe" was adopted into English ca. 1770 from the Italian oboè, a transliteration in that language's orthography of the 17th-century pronunciation of the French word hautbois, a compound word made of haut ("high, loud") and bois ("wood, woodwind").
  • Oboe became popular as an orchestral instrument in Baroque Period (1600-1750, ornate musical style)
  • A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist.
  • Oboe player blows across the double reed at the mouthpiece and presses the keys on the oboe body to change the sound
  • The end of oboe is shaped like a bell, to give it a mellow sound
  • There are three oboes in the modern symphony orchestra
  • Standard orchestra contains an oboe with a lower range, an English Horn (cor anglais)
  • Oboe’s range is slightly more then two octaves in the treble clef (notes that are above middle C).
  • Careful manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the player to express a large range of timbre and dynamics.
  • In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the oboe has a clear and penetrating voice.
  • The voice is described in the play Angels in America as sounding like that of a duck if the duck were a songbird
  • Oboe player has to learn to breath more slowly then normal, since little air is needed to play oboe
slide39

The Flute is a woodwind musical instrument

  • The flute is a transverse (or side-blown) woodwind instrument that is closed at the blown end.
  • Flute is played by blowing a stream of air over the embouchure hole.
  • The flute has 16 circular finger holes closed by keys, which can be used to produce high and low sounds depending on which finger holes are opened or closed as well as the direction and intensity of the air stream.
  • The flute has been dated to prehistoric times: there is a three-holed flute, 18.7cm long, made from a mammoth tusk (from the Geißenklösterle cave, near Ulm, in the southern German Swabian Alb and dated to 30,000 to 37,000 years ago)
  • The pan flute was used in Greece from the 7th century BC, and spread to other parts of Europe.
  • The recorderappeared in 14th century and was popular during the renaissance, but its use declined in the 18th century.
  • The Swiss army used flutes for signaling, and this helped the flute spread to all of Europe
  • In the baroque era, flutes become used in the scores of opera, ballet and chamber music: Bach, Telemann, Blavet, Vivaldi and Handel used it
  • Theobald Boehm is mainly responsible for making flutes very similar to flutes known today.
slide43

The double bass, (contrabass or upright bass) is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.

  • Double bass is used in classical music, jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, rockabilly/psychobilly, bluegrass, and tango.
  • Double basses are constructed from several types of wood
  • Double bass is either descendant of the viola da gamba or from the violin (~15th century)
  • The double bass is played either with a bow (arco) or by plucking the strings (Pizz).
  • In orchestral repertoire and tango music, bothbowing and plucking styles are used.
  • In jazz music, the bass is mostly plucked,
  • Before the 20th century many double basses had only three strings
  • A person who plays it is called a bassist
  • The earliest known concerto to exist for the double bass was written by Joseph Haydn ca.1763
  • The double bass is the only modern bowed string instrument that is tuned in fourths (like viols), rather than fifths