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The Middle Ages 1066-1485 Norman Invasion Battle of Hastings Duke William of Normandy, William the Conqueror defeats King Harold of England Start of the Medieval Period Norman Influence Emphasis on law and order Cultural unity Inventory of land Doomsday Book

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norman invasion
Norman Invasion
  • Battle of Hastings
    • Duke William of Normandy, William the Conqueror defeats King Harold of England
    • Start of the Medieval Period
norman influence
Norman Influence
  • Emphasis on law and order
  • Cultural unity
  • Inventory of land
    • Doomsday Book
    • Taxes based on what people owned
william the conqueror
William the Conqueror
  • Provided order
  • Merciless soldier
  • Efficient ruler and administrator
  • Able to conquer entire country
  • Ruled for twenty-one years
history of the normans
History of the Normans
  • The Normans
    • Descended from the Vikings
    • Seized and remained in northwestern France (Normandy)
    • Adopted many French customs
the norman conquest
  • The Fusing of the Norman and Anglo-Saxon Cultures
    • Neither dominant
    • Anglo-Saxons adapted to the Norman ways
      • Realized they could raise their place in society through the Church or through the court
      • Began to mingle with the Norman overlords
the norman conquest7
  • Thomas Becket
    • Henry II’s Lord Chancellor
    • Archbishop of Canterbury
    • Defended the claims of the Church against the interests of the King
    • Murdered by several of Henry’s knights
    • Became a saint of the Church and a hero of the people
land the feudal system
  • William took land of fallen English -had a great deal of land at his disposal
    • Retained much for himself
    • Divided rest to his followers
    • Felt he was free to deed land due to conquest (royal charter)
      • Expected obedience and service in return
    • Introduced into England the feudal system
land the feudal system9
  • The Doomesday (Doomsday) Book
    • 1086 by William
      • Disputes over vague property lines
      • Complete inventory of all property
      • Listed all landowners and showed the extent of their claims
      • Taxes could now be based on real property
        • Previously, there had been a uniformed tax for all

The Medieval Church

  • 11th-15th Century people of Western Europe belonged to one society with common beliefs and culture
  • Latin became the language of educated people
  • Everyone was responsible to the church, regardless of standing or where they resided
  • Main force in preserving and conveying the culture
medieval life
Medieval Life
  • Knights
    • Important and respected position
    • Chivalry
      • Code of conduct
      • First obligation to defend the king and Christian faith
      • Also treatment of women and help others- how to “behave”
    • Courtly love
medieval life12
Medieval Life
  • People move to towns and cities
  • Began a merchant class
    • Focus on herding not farming
    • Gave the people actual wages
    • Formed the guilds
      • System of workers regulating wages and prices
      • Fair to all in the profession
      • Created and extended family
        • Stonecutters, masons, carpenters, glass blowers
medieval life13
  • Life in the Middle Ages was difficult and challenging
    • The difficulty of life was balanced with religious festivals, magnificent tournaments, and brilliant pageantry
english law
English Law
  • William the Conqueror instituted written public documents for most government actions
    • Common Law
      • Refers to law common to the whole country and all its people, instead of laws applying only to certain classes of persons
english law15
  • Ordeals
    • Innocence or guilt was settled by tasks
    • In 1215, Pope Innocent III declared that the ordeal system was irrational
    • Jury system
the crusades
The Crusades
  • 1095-1270
  • Series of holy wars waged by European Christians against the Muslims
  • Pope Urban II began Crusades
  • Goal was to conquer Jerusalem
the hundred years war
The Hundred Years’ War
  • 1337-1453
  • First national war waged by England against France
    • Claims to the throne: Edward III and Henry V
    • Focus away from the knight and on the yeoman
      • Small land owner
      • Yard-long arrows
the black death
The Black Death
  • 1348-1349
  • Contagious - spread by fleas
  • Reduced population by a third
  • Shortage of labor
  • Gave lower classes more power against their overlords
  • Serfs gained freedom and ended Feudalism
medieval literature
  • Romance
    • Tales of chivalry with a love interest and all sorts of wonders and marvels
      • Fairy enchantments
      • Giants
      • Dragons
      • Wizards
      • Sorceresses
medieval literature three principal sources
MEDIEVAL LITERATUREThree Principal Sources
  • Britain
    • King Arthur and his knights
      • Based on Celtic folklore
      • Almost no historical basis
      • Illustrate chivalric ideals of honor, courage, courtesy, and service to women
medieval literature three principal sources21
MEDIEVAL LITERATUREThree Principal Sources
  • France
    • The Court of Charlemagne
medieval literature three principal sources22
MEDIEVAL LITERATUREThree Principal Sources
  • Rome
    • Classical stories such as the conquest of Troy
folk poetry and drama
  • Drama
    • Originated in Middle Ages
    • Miracle Plays
      • Performed by guilds during holidays celebrating religious festivals
      • Rough dramatizations of Biblical stories
folk poetry and drama24
  • Drama (cont.)
    • Morality Plays
      • Took the place of miracle plays toward the end of the Middle Ages, during the dark and troubled times of the 15th century
      • Elaborate dramatic allegories in which characters representing various virtues and vices confronted one another
      • Most famous was Everyman